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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw and Louise M. Burke

Collagen is the most abundant body protein, constituting around one third of total protein stores. Within the extracellular matrix of musculoskeletal and connective tissues, collagen contributes to force transmission and joint stability, providing resistance to forces and sudden directional changes

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Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

Collagen is the primary structural protein in tendon, ligament, skin, and bone ( Kjaer, 2004 ). In athletes, the integrity of these collagen-based tissues is instrumental to force transfer and underpins injury prevention and return to play. Therefore, interventions that improve the robustness of

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welvaert and Louise M. Burke

Musculoskeletal injuries are a common occurrence within athletic populations and may place a significant burden on the professional athlete and/or his or her respective team ( Kreisfeld et al., 2014 ). Collagen, which makes up approximately one third of total body protein ( Shoulders et al., 2009

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

 al., 2009 ; Wilkinson et al., 2007 ). Contemporary guidelines recommend whey protein beverages due to their higher leucine content and rapid aminoacidemia upon ingestion ( Thomas et al., 2016 ), though hydrolyzed collagen beverages and gels are now commercially available and marketed to athletic

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

tendinopathies would have a significant impact on elite performance. The goal of any intervention to treat tendinopathy is to increase the content of directionally oriented collagen and the density of cross-links within the protein to increase the tensile strength of the tendon. The most common intervention to

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Donghui Fu, Zhende Hou, Qing-Hua Qin, Lianyun Xu and Yanjun Zeng

The piezoelectric properties of bone play an important role in the bone remodeling process and can be employed in clinical bone repair. In this study, the piezo-voltage of bone between two surfaces of a bone beam under bending deformation was measured using an ultra-high-input impedance bioamplifier. The influence of shear stress on the signs of piezo-voltages in bone was determined by comparing and contrasting the results from three-point and four-point bending experiments. From the three-point bending experiment, the study found that the signs of piezo-voltages depend only on shear stress and are not sensitive to the normal stress.

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Marta Stepien-Slodkowska, Krzysztof Ficek, Pawel Zietek, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Wioletta Lubkowska, Miroslawa Szark-Eckardt and Pawel Cieszczyk

Context:

The most commonly injured body part for skiing has been found to be the knee. The rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was the most frequent diagnosis. ACL ruptures are determined by several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors including those that are hormonal, neuromuscular, anatomical, or genetic.

Objectives:

To examine the association of both COL1A1 rs1800012 (+1245G/T) and COL1A1 rs1107946 (–1997G/T) polymorphisms, individually and as haplotypes, with ACL ruptures in recreational Polish skiers.

Design:

Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal cells donated by the subjects, and genotyping was carried out using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Settings:

University laboratory.

Participants:

138 male recreational skiers with surgically diagnosed primary ruptures and 183 apparently healthy male recreational skiers not differing markedly in age or level of exposure to ACL injury.

Main Outcome Measures:

COL1A1 rs1800012 and COL1A1 rs1107946 polymorphisms.

Results:

There were significant differences in genotype distribution of the COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism between the ACL rupture group and the control group. The GG homozygotes were underrepresented in the ACL rupture group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in genotype distribution or allele frequency of COL1A1 rs1107946 polymorphisms between the ACL rupture group and the control group. The G-G (COL1A1 rs1800012G and COL1A1 rs1107946G) haplotype was the most common. There were no significant differences in haplotype distribution between the ACL-rupture and control groups.

Conclusion:

The study showed that GG homozygotes were underrepresented in the ACL-rupture group compared with the control group, which suggests an association with reduced risk of ACL injury.

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Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka and Haithem Rebai

centrifuged (2100 g for 10 min), and serum samples were stored frozen at −20°C until analysis. Bone formation markers and serum osteocalcin (OC; marker of collagen formation) were measured in the same laboratory by N-MID Osteocalcin ELISA, on the cobas e411 analyser using a commercial kit (Roche Diagnostics

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Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson and Citlali López-Ortiz

this study is on the muscular changes regardless of origin. Note the term “spastic muscles” in this review refers specifically to spastic CP-affected muscles. Table 1 A Summary of Experimental Results on the Relative Difference in Collagen Content Between Spastic CP-Affected and TD Muscles CP group TD

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

, maintaining strength/endurance and avoiding sickness were more commonly cited reasons for supplementation ( Petróczi et al., 2007a , 2007b , 2008 ). Animal experiments investigating skin wound healing indicate that supplementation can elicit positive effects on collagen synthesis ( Ejaz et al., 2009