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Observation Interventions as a Means to Manipulate Collective Efficacy in Groups

Adam M. Bruton, Stephen D. Mellalieu, and David A. Shearer

The purpose of this multistudy investigation was to examine observation as an intervention for the manipulation of individual collective efficacy beliefs. Study 1 compared the effects of positive, neutral, and negative video footage of practice trials from an obstacle course task on collective efficacy beliefs in assigned groups. The content of the observation intervention (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative video footage) significantly influenced the direction of change in collective efficacy (p < .05). Study 2 assessed the influence of content familiarity (own team/sport vs. unfamiliar team/sport) on individual collective efficacy perceptions when observing positive footage of competitive basketball performance. Collective efficacy significantly increased for both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions postintervention, with the largest increase for the familiar condition (p < .05). The studies support the use of observation as an intervention to enhance individual perceptions of collective efficacy in group-based activities. The findings suggest that observations of any group displaying positive group characteristics are likely to increase collective efficacy beliefs; however, observation of one’s own team leads to the greatest increases.

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Group Cohesion and Collective Efficacy of Volleyball Teams

Kevin S. Spink

The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between group cohesion and collective efficacy in volleyball teams. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the cohesion/collective efficacy relationship would be moderated by the type of group selected. The results supported the conclusion that specific measures of group cohesiveness were positively related to collective efficacy for elite volleyball teams, but not for recreational teams. In the elite teams, Individual Attractions to Group-Task and Group Integration-Social were found to differentiate significantly between low and high collective efficacy teams, with the high collective efficacy teams rating cohesiveness higher. No significant results emerged, however, when the relationship between group cohesion and collective efficacy was examined for recreational teams. This suggests the need for future research to address the cohesion/collective efficacy question from a comparative perspective.

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Individual and Crew Level Determinants of Collective Efficacy in Rowing

T. Michelle Magyar, Deborah L. Feltz, and Ian P. Simpson

The purpose of this study was to examine individual (i.e., task self-efficacy, rowing experience, and goal orientations) and group/boat level (perceptions of motivational climate and boat size) determinants of collective efficacy in the sport of rowing. Participants were 154 male and female rowers ages 13 to 18 years (M = 16.19, SD = 1.29). Approximately 24 hours prior to the regional championship regatta, participants completed a demographic measure, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, and sport-specific individual and collective efficacy measures developed for the current study. Multilevel modeling revealed that task self-efficacy significantly predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy, while perceptions of a mastery climate significantly predicted average collective efficacy scores at the group level.

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Efficacy Beliefs Are Related to Task Cohesion: Communication Is a Mediator

Sarah P. McLean, Christine M. Habeeb, Pete Coffee, and Robert C. Eklund

to be empirically tested in sports teams. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to (a) examine whether collective efficacy, team-focused other-efficacy, and team-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) are predictive of task cohesion; and (b) evaluate the possibility that communication

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An Exploratory Examination into the Effect of Absence Due to Hypothetical Injury on Collective Efficacy

Gregory C. Damato, J. Robert Grove, Robert C. Eklund, and Scott Cresswell

The effect of hypothetical injuries to pivotal and nonpivotal players on collective efficacy perceptions was studied in this exploratory investigation. A collective efficacy inventory was given to male soccer players (N = 194) from 12 semiprofessional teams, as well as a hypothetical scenario describing an injury to a pivotal or less pivotal player. Based on the PFA, the collective efficacy inventory was determined to have two factors: perseverance collective efficacy (PCE) and skills (physical) collective efficacy (SCE). Both PCE and SCE were subsequently analyzed to determine if the hypothesized loss of a player influenced such perceptions. Findings indicated that following the injury scenario, PCE perceptions only, significantly decreased following the loss of either player. PCE appears to be readily affected by player loss, whereas the results for SCE were more ambivalent. Future research, implications and limitations are discussed in detail.

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Should the Coaches of Elite Female Handball Teams Focus on Collective Efficacy or Group Cohesion?

Jean-Philippe Heuzé, Grégoire Bosselut, and Jean-Philippe Thomas

The purpose of this study was to examine the direction of the effect between cohesion and collective efficacy in elite female handball teams. A total of 84 female handball players completed 2 questionnaires at 2 time periods during the competitive season (i.e., early and midseason). Relationships were examined across time at an individual level after statistically controlling for previous group performance. Regression analyses including the autoregressive influence indicated that early-season collective efficacy positively predicted variance in midseason individual attractions to the group-task (ATG-T) after controlling for early-season ATG-T scores. In elite female handball teams, findings only supported collective efficacy as an antecedent of task cohesion and suggested that coaches should promote strategies dedicated to foster athletes’ beliefs about their team efficacy.

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Reciprocal Relationships Between Efficacy and Performance in Athlete Dyads: Self-, Other-, and Collective Constructs

Christine M. Habeeb, Robert C. Eklund, and Pete Coffee

dependent on factors such as how a teammate performs ( Bandura, 1997 ). As such, self-efficacy theory has been extended to include beliefs about a specific teammate’s capabilities (i.e., other-efficacy; Lent & Lopez, 2002 ) and beliefs about a team’s conjoint capabilities (i.e., collective efficacy

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Building and Communicating Collective Efficacy: A Season-Long In-Depth Study of an Elite Sport Team

Lars Tore Ronglan

The purpose of this study was to examine the production and regaining of collective efficacy within an elite sport team during a season. The fieldwork was possible because the author was an assistant coach on a women’s handball team participating in the World Championships and the Olympics. Acting as a participant observer during 1 year, the author observed efficacy-building processes from within the team. The fieldwork was supplemented by 17 qualitative interviews after the season. The study showed that production of collective efficacy was an interpersonal process, brought about by perceptions of previous performances, interpretations of team history, preparations for the upcoming contest, common rituals, and persuasive actions. When the team was confronted with failures, however, team-efficacy beliefs were vulnerable and needed constant reinforcement.

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Team Efficacy Profiles: Congruence Predicts Objective Performance of Athlete Pairs

Christine M. Habeeb, Sarah A. Stephen, and Robert C. Eklund

efficacy; Bandura, 1997 ). Other-efficacy and collective efficacy are also posited to predict performance providing a multilevel approach of team performance grounded in social cognitive theory. The tripartite model of relational efficacy beliefs ( Lent & Lopez, 2002 ), an extension of Bandura’s (1977

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College Soccer Players’ Perceptions of Coach and Team Efficacy

Frazer Atkinson, Sandra E. Short, and Jeffrey Martin

examined. Team efficacy, also known as collective efficacy (or team confidence), was defined by Bandura ( 1997 ) as “a group’s shared beliefs in its conjoint capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given levels of attainment” (p. 477). In contrast, coaching efficacy is