This paper is a synthesis of results from five separate studies examining how recent structural and philosophical changes in women’s intercollegiate sport programs may have altered the sport experience of female athletes. Based on both questionnaire and interview data, it was apparent that athletes participating in sport programs characterized by the greatest change (e.g., post-Title IX programs, programs of the 1980s, product-oriented sport models, and Division I programs of recent years) shared somewhat common experiences — with the presence of conflict being one of the most pervasive themes. Four types of conflict were identified: (a) value alienation, (b) role strain, (c) role conflict, and (d) exploitation. Each of these types of conflict is discussed and examples to substantiate the presence of each form of conflict are presented. Based upon the findings, it is suggested that the changing context and emphases of college sport may have exposed female athletes to different sets of circumstances, expectations, and experiences, thus altering the nature of the sport experience and bringing into question the educational legitimacy of college sport.
Elaine M. Blinde and Susan L. Greendorfer
Mallory Mann and Vikki Krane
-accepted masculine, heterosexual male, and feminine, heterosexual female. Because gender and sexuality often are conflated in sport, it is presumed that feminine females are heterosexual and masculine females are lesbian. Female masculinity often confers marginalized status in U.S. college sport, whereas feminine
Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl
coaches. Thus, we argue that exploring female college athletes’ constructions of leadership in the context of college sport and the gendered assumptions, beliefs, and ideologies associated with coach leadership may provide nuanced understandings of women’ underrepresentation in sport leadership and
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Kyle Kashuck, Joshua Law and Alexandra Speck
-related marketing initiatives. College Sport and Reasons for Fans’ Declining Stadium Attendance Arguably, the highest level of college football is the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), which consists of 128 schools ( NCAA, 2015a ). While the majority of FBS teams’ stadia are amongst the largest in
Internet-based sport communication mediums represent a crucial area of scholarly inquiry for the field. The continuing growth in popularity of blogs, message boards, and other Internet-specific types of sport communication presents sport communication scholars with a plethora of avenues for research. This commentary examines one such avenue, through a survey administered to users on 14 college sport message boards. Survey results indicated that message-board users were primarily male (87.8%) and White (90.8%) and possessed at least an undergraduate degree (76.0%). In addition, 42.2% of users reported a household income of $100,000 or more per year. The analysis of the resulting demographic and usage data highlights some of the key aspects of this sample of users, including information relating to race, gender, income, education level, and salience of message-board use by both subscribers and nonsubscribers. These and other factors are presented as potential areas of future scholarly inquiry for sport communication researchers.
Grace Yan, Ann Pegoraro and Nicholas M. Watanabe
-athletes constitute the predominant majority of athletes in revenue sport programs, any unequal treatment is most severely endured by this social group ( Staurowsky et al., 2015 ). In particular, racial inequality is at the heart of the exploitative revenue and labor system of college sport ( Hawkins, 1999 ). To be
James H. Frey
Rhema D. Fuller, Brennan K. Berg and Michael Hutchinson
Increasingly, sport managers are attempting to use athletics to positively affect their colleges' and universities' prestige. To highlight this contemporary issue, this case study presents an athletic director, Dwight Stanley, who has to give a recommendation on whether his institution should maintain its membership in the NJCAA or pursue membership in another athletic association, namely the NAIA or NCAA DIII.This case study is designed to capture the tension sport managers face as they encounter complex decisions. Accordingly, each membership option is presented with its advantages and disadvantages, as well as its supporters and detractors.Consequently, students will be required to critically assess a variety of factors to determine the institution's most feasible course of action. Given the popularity of careers within intercollegiate athletics, this case study provides an excellent way for students to engage in considering the complexities of such positions.Additionally, though the case study is presented within the context of intercollegiate athletics, the analytical process required to select a course of action is transferable to other segments of the sport industry.
Emmett L. Gill Jr.
The following is a narrative and critique of the Rutgers University Women’s Basketball Team/Don Imus Morning Show (RUIMUS) controversy. Using a convenience sample of regional and national media accounts and observations this piece summarizes the confirmed events of the RUIMUS controversy. The first objective of the manuscript is to provide a synopsis of the RUIMUS controversy. The second purpose is to explore how White privilege (McIntosh, 2003), new racism (Littlefield, 2008), sexism and their intersection operated during the lifespan of the RUIMUS controversy. The analyses illustrated the presence of the core elements of White privilege, new racism, sexism and double jeopardy, along with accounts of alienation, racial ambiguity, masculine characterizations and becoming visible through a prolonged controversy. The practical implications of these findings for sport managers are presented, and include postcontroversy student-athlete counseling, social and corrective justice, and proactive communications.