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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

-intensity exercise and collisions. 3 , 4 Muscle damage or injury can vary in severity along a continuum from mild exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), through varying degrees of muscular strain, to a muscular tear, significant contusion, laceration, and crush injury. 5 For athletes, muscle damage has the

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Simon J. MacLeod, Chris Hagan, Mikel Egaña, Jonny Davis and David Drake

in team sports. Importantly, to obtain a global view of the overall training load, valid measurements of both the volume and the intensity of collisions are essential as collisions provide a greater subjective, physical, and physiological load than noncontact rugby training or high

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Corey P. Ochs, Melissa C. Kay and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

Clinical Scenario Concussions are one of the most common sports-related injuries affecting athletes of all ages. Collision sports, such as football and ice hockey, are often at a higher risk of concussion due to the physical nature and style of play. Incidence ranges from 6.61/1000 athlete

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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins

specifically for rugby league, which can be used to quantify collision counts. 4 This algorithm is sensitive to detect 97.6% of collision events during professional rugby league match-play, and the typical error associated with measuring these events is 7.8%. 4 Accurately quantifying collision workloads is

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Matthew J. Major, José L. Zavaleta and Steven A. Gard

would theoretically increase collision work above that observed with rigid pylons, but also generate some energy return to mediate that increased work loss. Depending on the mechanical energy exchange, this may affect the energetics of walking 29 , 30 and could partially explain results indicating that

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Cloe Cummins and Rhonda Orr


To investigate the impact forces of collision events during both attack and defense in elite rugby league match play and to compare the collision profiles between playing positions.


26 elite rugby league players.


Player collisions were recorded using an integrated accelerometer in global positioning system units (SPI-Pro X, GPSports). Impact forces of collisions in attack (hit-ups) and defense (tackles) were analyzed from 359 files from outside backs (n = 78), adjustables (n = 97), wide-running forwards (n = 136), and hit-up forwards (n = 48) over 1 National Rugby League season.


Hit-up forwards were involved in 0.8 collisions/min, significantly more than all other positional groups (wide-running forwards P = .050, adjustables P = .042, and outside backs P = .000). Outside backs experienced 25% fewer collisions per minute than hit-up forwards. Hit-up forwards experienced a collision within the 2 highest classifications of force (≥10 g) every 2.5 min of match play compared with 1 every 5 and 9 min for adjustables and outside backs, respectively. Hit-up forwards performed 0.5 tackles per minute of match play, 5 times that of outside backs (ES = 1.90; 95% CI [0.26,3.16]), and 0.2 hit-ups per minute of match play, twice as many as adjustables.


During a rugby league match, players are exposed to a significant number of collision events. Positional differences exist, with hit-up and wide-running forwards experiencing greater collision events than adjustables and outside backs. Although these results may be unique to the individual team’s defensive- and attacking-play strategies, they are indicative of the significant collision profiles in professional rugby league.

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Richard P. Wells, Patrick J. Bishop and Malcolm Stephens

Spinal cord trauma due to head-first collisions is not uncommon in vehicle accidents, shallow water diving, football, or ice hockey. Two approaches to evaluating potential protective devices for ice hockey are described: an evaluative tool based upon an anthropometric test dummy, and a computer simulation of axial head-first collisions. Helmets reduced the peak cervical spine loads during low velocity head-first collisions by up to 8%. It is shown that large thicknesses of appropriate padding are necessary to hold the cervical spine loads to noninjurious levels. A head-first impact of 3.0 m • sec−1 required padding deformations on the order of 94 mm to hold cervical spine loads below 2,000 N.

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Daniel W.T. Wundersitz, Paul B. Gastin, Samuel J. Robertson and Kevin J. Netto


Accelerometer peak impact accelerations are being used to measure player physical demands in contact sports. However, their accuracy to do so has not been ascertained.


To compare peak-impact-acceleration data from an accelerometer contained in a wearable tracking device with a 3-dimensional motion-analysis (MA) system during tackling and bumping.


Twenty-five semielite rugby athletes wore a tracking device containing a 100-Hz triaxial accelerometer (MinimaxX S4, Catapult Innovations, Australia). A single retroreflective marker was attached to the device, with its position recorded by a 12-camera MA system during 3 physical-collision tasks (tackle bag, bump pad, and tackle drill; N = 625). The accuracy, effect size, agreement, precision, and relative errors for each comparison were obtained as measures of accelerometer validity.


Physical-collision peak impact accelerations recorded by the accelerometer overestimated (mean bias 0.60 g) those recorded by the MA system (P < .01). Filtering the raw data at a 20-Hz cutoff improved the accelerometer’s relationship with MA data (mean bias 0.01 g; P > .05). When considering the data in 9 magnitude bands, the strongest relationship with the MA system was found in the 3.0-g or less band, and the precision of the accelerometer tended to reduce as the magnitude of impact acceleration increased. Of the 3 movements performed, the tackle-bag task displayed the greatest validity with MA.


The findings indicate that the MinimaxX S4 accelerometer can accurately measure physical-collision peak impact accelerations when data are filtered at a 20-Hz cutoff frequency. As a result, accelerometers may be useful to measure physical collisions in contact sports.

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Jamie Highton, Thomas Mullen, Jonathan Norris, Chelsea Oxendale and Craig Twist

This aim of this study was to examine the validity of energy expenditure derived from microtechnology when measured during a repeated-effort rugby protocol. Sixteen male rugby players completed a repeated-effort protocol comprising 3 sets of 6 collisions during which movement activity and energy expenditure (EEGPS) were measured using microtechnology. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from open-circuit spirometry (EEVO2). While related (r = .63, 90%CI .08–.89), there was a systematic underestimation of energy expenditure during the protocol (–5.94 ± 0.67 kcal/min) for EEGPS (7.2 ± 1.0 kcal/min) compared with EEVO2 (13.2 ± 2.3 kcal/min). High-speed-running distance (r = .50, 95%CI –.66 to .84) was related to EEVO2, while PlayerLoad was not (r = .37, 95%CI –.81 to .68). While metabolic power might provide a different measure of external load than other typically used microtechnology metrics (eg, high-speed running, PlayerLoad), it underestimates energy expenditure during intermittent team sports that involve collisions.

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Arenda F. te Velde, John van der Kamp, Jules G. Becher, Coen van Bennekom and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

We examined whether deficits in planning and control during a manual collision avoidance task in children with hemiparesis are associated with damage to the left or right hemisphere (LHD and RHD). Children pushed a doll across a scale-size road between two approaching toy cars. Movement onset and velocity served as indicators of planning and control. In Experiment 1, children with hemiparesis collided more frequently, and controlled velocity less appropriately compared to typically-developing children. Children with LHD initiated their movement later than children with RHD. Experiment 2 compared the preferred and non-preferred hand of children with LHD and RHD. Children with RHD crossed less with their non-preferred hand, while children with LHD initiated later than children with RHD. Moreover, the groups showed differences in velocity control. It is argued that planning deficits may be related to LHD. The hypothesized association between control deficits and RHD, however, was not confirmed.