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Emerson Franchini

combat-sports specific tests and time structure are reported. Work-to-Rest Ratio in High-Level Combat-Sport Official Matches The rules of each combat sport create constraints that generate distinct technical–tactical behaviors. These behaviors are also influenced by the technical skills and physical

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

aerobic performance 8 and greater magnitudes impact anaerobic performance 9 – 11 in other sports, these findings may not be relevant to combat sports that allow recovery from dehydration post weigh-in. However recent research suggests seasoned combat sport athletes experienced in RWL may not suffer

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Jacob J. Levy, Terrance L. Tarver, and Hannah R. Douglas

the current study was to examine individuals engaged in combat sport training and other exercise regimens pre and post gym closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms in an effort to better understand the mental health needs of the combat sports

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T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler, and Dustin Thorn

their participation in a violent combat sport challenges traditional gender roles ( Greenwell, Hancock, Simmons, & Thorn, 2015 ). Similarly, the use of sexuality in advertising may be problematic as it may undermine their accomplishments as athletes. For example, UFC fighter Mike Brown stated that if he

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes, and Guilherme G. Artioli

positive energy balance (postcompetition) ( Mendes et al., 2013 ). The duration of each cycle is dependent on the type of combat sport and competition format. For example, MMA athletes typically compete in single-bout events and may undergo RWL and RWG two to four times per year ( Andreato et al., 2014

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Ciro José Brito, Aendria Fernanda Castro Martins Roas, Igor Surian Souza Brito, João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Claudio Córdova, and Emerson Franchini

The aim of this study was to investigate the methods adopted to reduce body mass (BM) in competitive athletes from the grappling (judo, jujitsu) and striking (karate and tae kwon do) combat sports in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An exploratory methodology was employed through descriptive research, using a standardized questionnaire with objective questions self-administered to 580 athletes (25.0 ± 3.7 yr, 74.5 ± 9.7 kg, and 16.4% ± 5.1% body fat). Regardless of the sport, 60% of the athletes reported using a method of rapid weight loss (RWL) through increased energy expenditure. Strikers tend to begin reducing BM during adolescence. Furthermore, 50% of the sample used saunas and plastic clothing, and only 26.1% received advice from a nutritionist. The authors conclude that a high percentage of athletes uses RWL methods. In addition, a high percentage of athletes uses unapproved or prohibited methods such as diuretics, saunas, and plastic clothing. The age at which combat sport athletes reduce BM for the first time is also worrying, especially among strikers.

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Reid Reale, Gregory R. Cox, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke


Combat-sport athletes acutely reduce body mass (BM) before weigh-in in an attempt to gain a size/strength advantage over smaller opponents. Few studies have investigated these practices among boxers and none have explored the impact of this practice on competitive success.


One hundred (30 women, 70 men) elite boxers participating in the Australian national championships were weighed at the official weigh-in and 1 h before each competition bout. Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between finalists and nonfinalists, winners and losers of each fight, men and women, and weight divisions. Boxers were surveyed on their pre- and post-weigh-in nutrition practices.


The lightest men’s weight category displayed significantly greater relative BM regain than all other divisions, with no difference between other divisions. BM prebout was higher than official weigh-in for men (2.12% ± 1.62%; P < .001; ES = 0.13) and women (1.49% ± 1.65%; P < .001; ES = 0.11). No differences in BM regain were found between finalists and nonfinalists, winners and losers of individual bouts, or between preliminary or final bouts. BM regain was significantly greater (0.37% BM, P < .001; ES = 0.25) before an afternoon bout compared with a morning bout.


Boxers engage in acute BM-loss practices before the official competition weigh-in, but this does not appear to affect competition outcomes, at least when weight regain between weigh-in and fighting is used as a proxy for the magnitude of acute loss. While boxers recognize the importance of recovering after weigh-in, current practice is not aligned with best-practice guidance.

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay, and Karen Hind

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport, with bouts defined by weight divisions ( Reale et al., 2017 ) with the aim of endorsing balanced and stimulating matches while reducing potential injuries that may result from substitutional differences in weight ( Mendes et al., 2013 ). For the athlete

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Alfonso Gutiérrez-Santiago, Iván Prieto-Lage, Arturo Martín, and Carlos Ayán

Judo is a Paralympic combat sport whose practice among athletes with visual impairment has increased exponentially, with more than 500 judokas from 4 continents competing at the highest level. 1 Judokas are categorized in 3 levels according to the degree of their visual impairment (B1: blind; B2

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MacIntosh Ross and Kevin B. Wamsley

On July 27, 1859, “Canada” Kate Clark met two Americans, Nellie Stem and Mary Dwyer, for a pair of prize fights in Fort Erie, Canada West. Beginning their adventure in Buffalo, New York, they rowed their way across the Niagara River to the fighting grounds in the British colony. Like pugilists before them, they stripped to the waist to limit potential grappling in battle. Both the journey and pre-fight fight preparations were tried and true components of mid-nineteenth century prize fighting. Although the press, and later historians, overwhelmingly associated such performances with male combatants, women were indeed active in Canadian pugilistic circles, settling scores, testing their mettle, and displaying their fistic abilities both pre- and post-Confederation. In this article, we begin to untangle the various threads of female pugilism, situating these athletes and performers within the broader literature on both boxing and women's sport in Canada. By examining media reports of female boxers—both in sparring and prize fighting—we hope to provide a historiographic foundation for further discussions of early female pugilism, highlighting the various ways these women upheld and challenged the notion of the “new woman” in Canada.