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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, and Chris R. Abbiss

Typically, combat sports are divided into weight divisions in an effort to standardize competitors’ size and strength. Athletes are weighed prior to competition, with the time between weigh-in and competition varying (from less than 1 h up to 24 h). 1 , 2 To gain a weight advantage over opponents

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Stefan Pettersson and Christina M. Berg

The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes’ (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8–10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices.

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Tyler A. Beauregard, Jade Vaile, Lucas Whitney, Mark Merrick, and Valerie Moody

injury management in many sport settings, its use between rounds in combat sports, such as mixed martial arts and boxing, presents unique challenges. In mixed martial arts, the technical knockout, including all referee and physician stoppages, 7 is the most frequent outcome of a match, accounting for

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

It is common for athletes in weight-category sports to try to gain a theoretical advantage by competing in weight divisions that are lower than their day-to-day body mass (BM). Weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body-fat losses) but also through acute manipulations before weigh-in (“making weight”). Both have performance implications. This review focuses on Olympic combat sports, noting that the varied nature of regulations surrounding the weigh-in procedures, weight requirements, and recovery opportunities in these sports provide opportunity for a wider discussion of factors that can be applied to other weight-category sports. The authors summarize previous literature that has examined the performance effects of weightmaking practices before investigating the physiological nature of these BM losses. Practical recommendations in the form of a decision tree are provided to guide the achievement of acute BM loss while minimizing performance decrements.

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Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović, and Goran Kuvačić

rounds ( Buse, 2009 ). Like in other combat sports, kickboxing competitions are organized in different weight categories. According to the World Association of Kickboxing Organizations, there are 12 official senior weight divisions (from under 51 kg to plus 91 kg). The purpose of athlete classification

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke

output, and thus increasing fluid losses relative to fluid restriction following ad libitum fluid intake ( Reale et al., 2016 ). Anecdotes exist among body builders and power lifters as well as in combat sports. Two recent investigations have confirmed the use of water loading in the United Kingdom

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton, and Adam S. Tenforde

output to low body mass. • LEA and DE/ED may contribute to impairments of mood, performance, and recovery. • Lower BMD particularly noted in lumbar spine of cyclists due to combination of LEA and low weight-bearing activity, including offloading of spine during aerodynamic riding positions. Combat sports

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Bjoern Krenn

In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others’ judgments.

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Stefan Pettersson and Christina M. Berg

Weight category athletes are known for practicing rapid weight loss before competition weigh-in. After weigh-in, athletes strive to restore euhydration and body mass through food and fluid intake. The aim of the current study was to assess prevalence of hypohydration at competition time among elite athletes’ in four different combat sports, and how water intake and timing of official weigh-in were related to hydration status. Participants were 31 taekwondo practitioners and wrestlers who performed evening weigh-in (EWI) the night before competition day and had thus time for rehydration, and 32 boxers and judokas conducting competition day morning weigh-in (MWI). In total, 32% were female. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by refractometry on the competition day’s first morning urine sample. Hypohydration was defined as USG ≥1.020 and serious hypohydration as USG > 1.030. Water intake was measured by means of dietary records. The prevalence of hypohydration was 89% in the morning of competition day. Serious hypohydration was also prevalent. This was found in over 50% of MWI athletes and in 42% of the EWI group. A higher water intake, from both fluids and solid foods, in the evening before competition day was not associated with a more favorable hydration status the following morning. In conclusion, neither weigh-in close to competition nor evening weigh-in with more time for rehydration seems to prevent hypohydration before competition.