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Ryo Yamanaka, Shinya Wakasawa, Koya Yamashiro, Naoki Kodama, and Daisuke Sato

long-distance runners is improved with an increase in CSA of psoas major by using not only the combination training intervention but also a control group without the resistance training intervention. Moreover, we should determine that the mechanism of why the increase in CSA of psoas major resulted in

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Mariane Fahlman, Amy Morgan, Nancy McNevin, Robert Topp, and Debra Boardley

The purpose of the study was to determine whether resistance training (RT) or a combination of resistance and aerobic training (CT) resulted in the most improvement in measures of functional ability in functionally limited elders. Elderly adults who exhibited some limits in functional ability were randomly assigned to either a CT, RT, or control (C) group. Both RT and CT exercised three times per week for 16 weeks. At Weeks 0 and 17, participants completed six measures of strength and six functional tests. A 3 (group) × 3 (time) ANOVA with repeated measures on the time factor was used to analyze the results. CT and RT scored significantly better than C at Week 17 for biceps curl, elbow extension, chair stand, and time up the stairs. These findings demonstrate that RT and CT are both effective at increasing measures of strength and functional ability in elderly adults who begin exercise with functional limitations.

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Troy Blackburn, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Meredith A. Petschauer, and William E. Prentice


To determine whether proprioception or muscular strength is the dominant factor in balance and joint stability and define what type of ankle rehabilitation is most effective for these purposes.


The University of North Carolina Sports Medicine Research Laboratory.


Thirty-two healthy volunteers free of head injury, dominant leg injury, and vestibular deficits.


Subjects were divided into control, strength-training, proprioceptive-training, and strength-proprioception combination training groups. Balance was assessed before and after 6-week training programs.


Static, semidynamic, and dynamic balance were assessed.


Subjects showed no improvement for static balance but improved significantly for semidynamic (P = .038) and dynamic (P = .002) balance. No significant differences were observed between groups.


Enhancement of proprioception and muscular strength are equally effective in promoting joint stability and balance maintenance. In addition, no 1 type of training program is superior to another for these purposes.

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2007 15 2 166 183 10.1123/japa.15.2.166 Reliability and Validity of Responses to Submaximal All-Extremity Semirecumbent Exercise in Older Adults Marissa E. Mendelsohn * Denise M. Connelly * Tom J. Overend * Robert J. Petrella * 4 2007 15 2 184 194 10.1123/japa.15.2.184 Combination Training and

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin, and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

specificity, combination training and sport specific tasks . J Sci Med Sport . 2001 ; 4 ( 2 ): 168 – 178 . PubMed ID: 11548916 doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80027-X 11548916 10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80027-X

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Thomas I. Gee, Paul Harsley, and Daniel C. Bishop

performance enhancement is typically seen to occur at 5 to 15 minutes post conditioning stimulus via processes related to Ca 2+ sensitivity (increases in muscle temperature and muscle water content) and muscle activation. 6 Conversely, contrast training has been defined as a combination training method that

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Jamie Taber and Kat Longshore

integration of these two aspects should be more of a point of focus moving forward. In particular, incorporating mental skills into combination training exercises could help bridge this gap, more explicitly demonstrating how the skills can be applied. Despite this critique, athletes largely expressed that

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

.01.006 10.1016/j.metabol.2011.01.006 21377179 54. LeMura LM , Duvillard SP , Andreacci J , Klebez JM , Chelland SA , Russo J . Lipid and lipoprotein profiles, cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and diet during and after resistance, aerobic and combination training in young women

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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray, and Julia L. Allan

, 87 ( 7 ), 885 – 896 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.04.005 * Fahlman , M. , Morgan , A. , McNevin , N. , Topp , R. , & Boardley , D. ( 2007 ). Combination training and resistance training as effective interventions to improve functioning in elders . Journal of Aging and Physical