, or, with the MLB.TV streaming service, fans can listen to the sounds of the ballpark and the game without hearing any commentary if they so desire. Again, herein lies the distinction between what is shown on the broadcast, what the commentators discuss, and how it is discussed. Therefore, both the
Zachary W. Arth and Andrew C. Billings
Carrie B. Scherzer and Justine J. Reel
In this commentary, we try to present a balanced look at the issues surrounding the implementation of the certification exam for recertification purposes. We recognize that the changes to certification are complex and varied, as were reactions by the membership of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP). As long-standing AASP members who are also certified consultants, we look at the costs, benefits, and ultimately the reality of the CMPC exam for recertification.
Zachary W. Arth, Darrin J. Griffin, and Andrew C. Billings
used in it. Typologies and Language As illustrated in the historical overview of the analysis of sport commentary, previous research has relied on typologies of language to quantitatively examine differences across athletes and how they are cast by media. Although a variety of categorization systems
Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska, and Barbara Stelzner
cameras like at Olympics or other tournaments before. Restricting the production of images, based on the uniform multilateral feed, makes the verbal organization through the live commentary more important in producing the visual stimulus. With that, the examination of verbal commentary becomes a relevant
this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics. Commentary The first paper ( 23 ), authored by a team
Chang Wan Woo, Jung Kyu Kim, Cynthia Nichols, and Lu Zheng
Numerous studies examining the portrayals of gender, race, and nationality in sports commentary have been conducted through the years; however, comparative analyses of commentaries from different countries have been rare. This study examined commentary from 3 different countries (the U.S., Chinese Taipei, and South Korea) during a Major League Baseball (MLB) World Series. An entertainment theory schema was adopted and the 3 countries were categorized based on dispositional relativity (affiliation) with MLB. Findings indicate that South Korean broadcasts, which had the lowest affiliation with MLB, were biased toward the Boston Red Sox and presented the most evaluative commentaries; U.S. commentaries were generally positive and contained the largest portion of informative comments; and Chinese commentaries were unbiased and also provided a large number of informative comments. This implies that sports games using the same visual images can be framed differently by commentators based on the disposition (affiliation) level of audiences.
Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton, and Adam S. Tenforde
al., 2014 ). Nevertheless, a suite of factors within the culture, regulation, and performance drivers of a sport/event may predispose an athlete to adopting eating and/or exercise patterns that result in LEA. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the experience and insights of the current group of
Shuhua Zhou, Jie Xu, and Yinjiao Ye
This article first explicates the concept of sports enjoyment and then reviews the literature on the many facets of sports commentary regarding its general content and effects. An experimental study was designed to test whether complimentary or conflicting commentary, as well as game knowledge, and playing experience contributed to game enjoyment, perceived liking of the commentary, and perceived action in the game. Results partially supported the hypotheses. Specifically, commentary type had a significant impact on viewers’ liking of the commentary but had no impact on game enjoyment or perceived action in the game, game knowledge increased game enjoyment but had no impact on the other two dependent variables, and playing experience had a positive impact on perceived action in the game but had no impact on the other two variables. Implications are discussed.
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Tie Nie, and Grace Yan
The Olympic Games are one of the most popular global televised sporting events. In the greater body of sport communication literature, a great deal of focus has been placed on examining sport media from the West. This article considers the unique and specific case of Chinese Olympic broadcast commentary televised by state media. In this, an evolutionary process of sport media can be seen in the analysis of several themes: nationalism and identity, heroes and failure, collectivism and individualism, and the portrayal of female athletes. In considering the dynamic changes that have come about in the past 3 decades of Chinese commentary, it is evident that many themes in Chinese sport media have become reflective of those found in Western sport media. While Chinese sport media have similarities to Western sport media, it is important to note that Chinese sport media are unique. Results of this work can help provide richer understanding of sport media and consumers in China.
Eleni Bassa, Dimitrios Patikas, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas, and Christos Kotzamanidis
We would like to comment on the paper by Dotan et al. (8) entitled “Child-adult differences in muscle activation—a review.” Dotan et al.’s review (8) in conjunction with the commentary of O’Brien et al. (20) constitutes an important contribution to the question “who are stronger: children or adults?” based on specific force comparisons between children and adults and not on absolute values. For simplification reasons, we would like to limit the context of this question to single-joint isometric and isokinetic contractions only. Hence, we will not discuss multi-joint dynamic actions.