various events and disciplines, and pressure from member federations for reform, Nebiolo’s tenure saw track-and-field shift to a fully professional and commercialized sport industry, although athletes’ needs were rarely considered in the process. 10 Scholars have considered the end of amateurism in track
April Henning and Jörg Krieger
Ten: Courage, Corruption, and Commercialization , adds to his impressive scholarship by providing a history of the Big Ten athletic conference during its formative years. Within, Solberg focuses on the interaction between higher education and intercollegiate football. There are, of course, other
Jianjun Tang and Elizabeth A. Gregg
This study examines media images of sports public figures during 4 periods of modern Chinese history. Furthermore, an explanation is provided for each of the variables that have affected the media’s portrayal of sports public figures. As in most cultures and nations around the world, sports public figures are recognizable characters in modern Chinese culture. They have a significant impact on opinions regarding sports and society and have gained a pivotal role in the fabric of mainstream culture. Over the various historical periods in China, the country’s media have reported stories involving sports public figures differently. The descriptions contained in this study are reflections of the various political, economical, cultural, sports, and media climates during different time periods in China. The commercialization of sports and the rise of the media’s presence have influenced the pursuit of an all-encompassing image of Chinese sports public figures.
Jar R. Mandle and Joan D. Mandle
This article is intended to cast light on the general process of the commercialization of sport by examining that process in Trinidad and Tobago basketball. The authors explore the strengths and weaknesses of basketball’s dominant voluntary structure as well as those of the emerging commercialization of the sport. They analyze the tensions between voluntary and commercial basketball, and the relative advantages of each to different segments of the basketball community. They conclude that neither voluntarism nor commercialization is likely to be able to impose its dominance on the other in Trinidad and Tobago. Therefore, the future of basketball in that country will probably involve the coexistence of a voluntary structure alongside an incompletely developed commercial venture.
’s participation to the concept of amateurism. 2 The abolition of amateurism led to an economic development through the pursuit of commercialization, and sports organizations pursued athlete welfare primarily to alleviate possible concerns from sponsors. Indeed, financial interests tie these three themes together
Jose Lam and Jacqueline Walsh
This case illustrates the challenges entrepreneurs experience as they try to guide a new venture to the commercialization stage in the entrepreneurial process. Steve Wheeler, Mike Maddock, and Marcel Savidon are three young entrepreneurs and friends who founded Magine Snowboards, a company focused on the manufacturing of snowboards. This case is set in January of 2012 as Steve Wheeler debates the next strategic step for the company. Magine has developed an innovative product—a snowboard that uses environmentally friendly and sustainable materials. The entrepreneurs have been able to start the business through bootstrapping. However, they now need to develop a strategy that can guide the company forward.
Benjamin D. Brewer
The rediscovery in the past three years of the widespread and highly organized use of performance-enhancing drugs—known as “doping”—in professional cycling has thrown the sport into a period of turmoil. Through a critical historical analysis, the article argues that profound institutional changes introduced into professional cycling by the sport’s governing body both facilitated and reflected the increasing commercial penetration of the sport. These institutional transformations put new pressures on team managers and racers, leading to significant changes in team organizations and rider preparation, in part fostering a new social organization of doping practices.
John Wong and Scott R. Jedlicka
’s application into the NHL through the dynamic interplay between commercialized sport and national/regional identity. Long before Parliament proclaimed hockey as the national (winter) sport of Canada, the perception of hockey as a Canadian cultural product was widely accepted as fact. 2 While a game hitting an
Robert Hughes and Jay Coakley
Hans Erik Næss
How can Global Sporting Governing Bodies (GSGBs) like the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA) take a stand on political issues in places where a sporting event which comes under their aegis is being held without compromising their own position as neutral governing bodies of sport? Drawing upon a historical sociological approach and using the FIA and the Formula 1 world motorsport championship as its key example, this paper argues that one reason why controversy about this is growing is because FIA’s current power structures were established in an era less suited to today’s world of sports and stakeholdership. In order to change, we need to review the historical processes that shaped current power relations between the GSGB and its stakeholders and, through that, identify an alternative view of power which may resolve the dilemma which the relation between sport and politics currently throws up.