This study examined coaching burnout from a commitment perspective that highlights the link between burnout and feelings of entrapment. Theoretically, entrapment occurs when coaches become less attracted to coaching but feel they have to maintain their involvement because (a) they perceive a lack of attractive alternatives to coaching, (b) they believe they have too much invested to quit, or (c) they think others expect them to continue coaching. For this study, 295 age-group swim coaches completed a survey that included scales to assess the theoretical determinants of commitment, the exhaustion component of burnout, and commitment itself. Data analyses involved a 2-step approach. (Initially, cluster analysis results revealed 3 clusters of coaches with characteristics reflecting profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment.) Subsequently, MANOVA revealed significant differences between the 3 clusters on exhaustion and commitment. Coaches with characteristics of entrapment reported significantly higher exhaustion than the other groups and near average commitment scores.
Thomas D. Raedeke, Tracy L. Granzyk and Anne Warren
Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent
, satisfaction, motivation, commitment, and sense of community (e.g., Farrell, Johnston, & Twynam, 1998 ; Kerwin, Warner, Walker, & Stevens, 2015 ; MacLean & Hamm, 2007 ). Despite this large body of research, past studies have usually examined constructs individually or in relation with one or two more
Robert Weinberg, Deanna Morrison, Megan Loftin, Thelma Horn, Elizabeth Goodwin, Emily Wright and Carly Block
batting practice, move farther back in the batter’s box, or change his routine in the on-deck circle. The areas of goal commitment and goal importance are critical to include in any goal-setting program because Locke’s ( 1968 ) seminal theoretical article, as well as many subsequent studies and reviews of
Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir
, 2011 ). Three major contributors to young females’ attrition from organized sport include lack of sport commitment, dedication to other competing priorities, and a lack of sport enjoyment ( Brown, Salmon, & Pearson, 2014 ; Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Sport commitment is the psychological condition that
Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves and Ken Hodge
.g., Teixeira, Carraça, Markland, Silva, & Ryan, 2012 ; Wilson, Sabiston, Mack, & Blanchard, 2012 ). Committed Action The process of committed action pertains to the development of, and commitment to, behavioral patterns that are consistent with an individual’s personally chosen values, such as improved health
Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi
, 2010 ). Understanding gender differences may inform volunteer managers to customize their recruitment strategies. Volunteer managers can place appropriate emphasis on the most important motives and their interrelationship with commitment and social capital when retaining existing volunteers and
Thilo Kunkel, Jason Patrick Doyle and Alexander Berlin
Consumers’ evaluations of their favorite sport team’s contests are influenced by the value that the team provides to them. The current research contributes to the sport management literature through conceptualizing and measuring the dimensions that influence the perceived value consumers link with their favorite sport team’s games and testing the explanatory ability of this perceived value on their satisfaction with, and commitment toward, the team. Five semistructured expert interviews were conducted to conceptualize perceived value dimensions and measurement items. Next, a multidimensional Consumers’ Perceived Value of Sport Games scale (CPVSG) was developed and tested across two studies with football (soccer) consumers (N 1 = 225; N 2 = 382) in Germany. Results from confirmatory factor and structural equation modeling analyses indicate that five dimensions—functional, social, emotional, epistemic, and economic value—reflect perceived value dimensions that consumers associate with sport team games. Results also indicated these perceived value dimensions were predictive of consumers’ satisfaction with, and commitment toward, their favorite team. Thus, this research adds to the literature by providing the multidimensional CPVSG scale and demonstrating its value in explaining variance in attitudinal outcome variables.
Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai
The development of the l5-dimension, 56-item Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ) was based on Chelladurai and Riemer’s (1997) classification of facets of athlete satisfaction. Qualitative procedures included item generation, expert judgment, and independent placement of items in relevant facets. Quantitative procedures, item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, involving 172 undergraduate students and 614 Canadian university athletes, confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Correlations between the ASQ’s subscales and scales of commitment and negative affectivity provided evidence of criterion-related validity. Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from .78 to .95. The 15 facets of ASQ encompassed salient aspects of athletic participation, performance (both individual and team), leadership, the team, the organization, and the athlete.
Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith
The purpose of this study was to examine age and gender differences in the quality of sport friendship, assess the relationship between friendship quality and motivation related variables, and obtain additional support for the validity of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS; Weiss & Smith, 1999). Tennis players (N = 191, ages 10–18 years) completed the SFQS and other measures salient to the questions of the study. A MANOVA revealed that adolescent athletes ages 14–18 years rated loyalty and intimacy, things in common, and conflict higher than did younger players, ages 10–13 years, who in turn rated companionship and pleasant play higher. Girls rated self-esteem enhancement and supportiveness, loyalty and intimacy, and things in common higher than did boys, who rated conflict higher. Regression analysis indicated that companionship and pleasant play, conflict resolution, and things in common predicted higher tennis enjoyment and commitment. The collective findings—confirmation of the SFQS six-factor structure, relationships between sport friendship quality dimensions and peer acceptance, and relationships of sport friendship quality dimensions with Harter’s (1988) close friendship measure—support the validity of the SFQS.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn and Ye Hoon Lee
conceptual model for understanding the relationships among POS, emotional labor, affective commitment, and job satisfaction in in-service physical educators (Figure 1 ). These constructs can be explored through affective events theory (AET; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996 ), which highlights the role of workplace