Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.
Collin A. Webster
Erin Berenbaum and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Gain-framed messages are more effective at promoting physical activity than loss-framed messages. However, the mechanism through which this effect occurs is unclear. The current experiment examined the effects of message framing on variables described in the communication behavior change model (McGuire, 1989), as well as the mediating effects of these variables on the message-frame–behavior relationship. Sixty low-to-moderately active women viewed 20 gain- or loss-framed ads and five control ads while their eye movements were recorded via eye tracking. The gain-framed ads attracted greater attention, ps < .05; produced more positive attitudes, p = .06; were better recalled, p < .001; influenced decisions to be active, p = .07; and had an immediate and delayed impact on behavior, ps < .05, compared with the loss-framed messages. Mediation analyses failed to reveal any significant effects. This study demonstrates the effects of framed messages on several outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear.
Brendan Dwyer, Greg Greenhalgh, and Carrie LeCrom
The sport marketplace is overcrowded, and contemporary sport fans have more choices than ever. This makes it difficult for new teams, leagues, and sports to enter the marketplace. In addition, a cultural oligarchy of mainstream sport leagues currently dominates media coverage. As a result, marketers and managers of emerging sports need to understand the attributes for which sport fans connect with entities. Little is known, however, about the differences between fans of niche (emerging or nonmainstream) sports and their mainstream-sport counterparts. Guided by social-identity theory, this study explored the dispositional and behavioral differences between niche- and mainstream-sport fans as a means of psychometric and behavioral segmentation. In particular, an individual’s need for uniqueness and communication behaviors were compared. The results suggest that dispositional differences between the segments were minimal. However, potentially important behavioral differences were uncovered related to how sport fans assimilate with others and advertise their sport affiliations.
Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander, and Gordon A. Bloom
.e., direct observations of positive tactile communication behaviors). However, any discussion of positive tactile communication as a potential coaching strategy requires careful consideration of the context, type of tactile behavior, and power differential between coach and athlete. For example, interpretations of
Collin A. Webster, Jongho Moon, Hayes Bennett, and Stephen Griffin
immediacy and content relevance are influenced by teacher communication behaviors ( Webster, 2010 ). Teachers communicate approachability to students when they enact verbal behavior, like using vocal variety, laughing, and using students’ names, and nonverbal communication behaviors, like smiling, leaning
Guro S. Solli, Silvana B. Sandbakk, Dionne A. Noordhof, Johanna K. Ihalainen, and Øyvind Sandbakk
knowledge and communication behaviors might differ from coaches of elite athletes. Moreover, the main topic of their questionnaire was the female athlete triad, not the MC. Consequently, further research on how much endurance athletes and their coaches know and communicate about the MC is necessary
Sarah P. McLean, Christine M. Habeeb, Pete Coffee, and Robert C. Eklund
GI–T cohesion. These findings are not surprising, however, as researchers have previously observed that relationships between productive and positive communication behaviors and cohesion exist (e.g., Holt & Spark, 2001 ). Moreover, the current findings are in accordance with Jackson et al.’s ( 2008
Grace Yan, Ann Pegoraro, and Nicholas M. Watanabe
communication method, but it has its own logic and characteristics that must be strategically analyzed in relation to different organizational structures and participant identities ( Benett et al., 2014 ). In an empirical lens, athlete activists’ communication behaviors, such as using hashtags to seek
Markus Schäfer and Catharina Vögele
, neither online nor offline (1%). The technological change and the changes in communication behavior of communicators, and recipients over the last years are also reflected in the channels analyzed. While the share of content analyses of printed media was declining between the first (40%) and the second 5
Emily Kroshus, Jessica Wagner, David L. Wyrick, and Brian Hainline
communication behaviors. At baseline in the evaluation survey, this measure had adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.71). Intentions about responding to concerns Coaches responded to the following prompt: “During the next 12 months, how likely are you to do each of the following if