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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

In 1989, former Major League Baseball (MLB) player John Young created the Reviving Baseball in Inner Cities (RBI) program as a way to increase the number of African Americans becoming involved with the game of baseball. Along with this program, MLB created the Urban Youth Academy (UYA) in 2006 as a way to not only teach the game but also provide life skills to youth and adults. However, MLB continues to struggle in developing relationships and increasing involvement of African Americans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand why African Americans are not interested or involved in MLB. Corporate social responsibility and relationship management theory were used as the frameworks for this study. Eleven RBI and UYA program managers were interviewed to determine the challenges they face in getting African Americans involved in the game. Results from this study indicated four themes regarding MLB program managers’ challenges: inconsistency in measuring success, lack of parental involvement, and lack of trust. A discussion, implications, and future directions are addressed.

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Tiesha Martin, Stacy Warner and Bhibha Das

Many higher education institutions incorporate service-learning programs because of the positive outcomes they produce for students. However, limited research has assessed the outcomes of service-learning for students working with older adults in a sport setting. Using a discourse analysis approach, this study examined the outcomes of volunteering with the Greenville-Pitt County Senior Games for 55 students enrolled in a physical activity and aging course. The results revealed that students’ perceptions about older adults’ Physical Abilities and Competitiveness and their view of Sport as a Social Event changed as a result of the service-learning experience. Students also cited Humanizing the Older Adult Experience and Learning by Doing as positive outcomes of the experience. The research findings suggest that service-learning with older adults in a sport setting can help better prepare students to serve the aging population. The implications and opportunities for Sport Management instructors are highlighted.

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

partners, (3) managing data collection and analysis, (4) handling communication, (5) coordinating community outreach, and (6) mobilizing funding. Critics of the collective impact model have raised important concerns about the implications of simplifying community organizing into these conditions and

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Bradley J. Cardinal, Minsoo Kang, James L. Farnsworth II and Gregory J. Welk

Kinesiology leaders were surveyed regarding their views of the (re)emergence of physical activity and public health. Their views were captured via a 25-item, online survey conducted in 2014. The survey focused on four areas: (a) types of affiliation with public health; (b) program options and course coverage; (c) outreach programming; and (d) perspectives on integration. Member and nonmember institutions of the American Kinesiology Association received the survey. Responses were received from 139 institutional leaders, resulting in an overall response rate of 21.4%. Key findings included that the combination of physical activity and public health was seen as both a stand-alone subdisciplinary area within kinesiology and also an area that has a great deal of potential for collaboration, the acquisition of external funding, and further strengthening of community outreach and engagement. The survey results are placed in historical context and interpreted with various caveats and limitations in mind.

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Daniel Gould

The mission of the Institute for the Study of Youth Sports (ISYS) is to provide leadership, scholarship, and outreach that “transforms” the face of youth sports in ways that maximize the beneficial physical, psychological, and social effects of participation for children and youth while minimizing detrimental effects. Since its inception in 1978, ISYS has partnered with numerous organizations to promote healthy youth sports participation. In this article, the general steps ISYS takes to form and facilitate partnerships are addressed. Four long-term partnerships are also described. The services provided to these organizations are described and the advantages and challenges of working with partners, in general, are delineated. How these partnerships are used to facilitate the teaching, outreach-engagement, and scholarship components of the Michigan State University land grant mission are also described. The case of ISYS shows that conducting community outreach and engagement projects greatly enhance the scholarly mission of the university.

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Christina A. Taylor and Joonkoo Yun

This study examined the psychometric properties of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS) for use with children with mental retardation (MR). Eleven children with MR were videotaped while participating in a university-based community outreach program. Actiwatch accelerometers were used as the criterion measure. Results indicated that SOFIT and CARS both demonstrated adequate levels of generalizability (ϕ= 0.98 and 0.75), but a low concurrent validity coefficient for SOFIT (r = .10) and a moderate level of validity coefficient for CARS (r = .61) were observed. CARS demonstrates stronger validity evidence than SOFIT, but it is important to have sufficient rater training before using CARS for measuring physical activity level of children with MR.

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

, recruitment events, community outreach programs, and study hall. These activities occurred regularly (e.g., weekly) within the confines of the athletic arena. Treatments were the most time consuming, taking anywhere from 30 minutes to 3 hours per day and affecting every athlete in the sample. Supervised by

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Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps and William D. Smart

worldwide based on chapter estimates. Thus, as a result of both research and community outreach efforts, opportunities for modified ride-on cars as a viable mobility option for young children are increasing. However, depending on the context of provision, follow-up support or tracking modified ride-on car

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Patricia Kelshaw, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell and Shane V. Caswell

coaches and community outreach programs have promoted cervical strengthening exercises to combat SRC risk. 33 , 34 Yet, the current status of CMS in regard to HIK mitigation, including our findings, suggest further appropriate investigation to identify risk factors for SRC. 15 , 20 , 31 Future Research

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Quinn Malone, Steven Passmore and Michele Maiers

and social media, and community outreach. The qualification for inclusion required the fulfillment of some basic criteria, that they should be 65 years of age or older, capable of independent ambulation, living in a community dwelling, and on a stable medication plan. In addition, the participants had