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Hal A. Lawson

As new designs are advanced for industrial age schools and universities, including cradle-to-career systems that connect them, needs and opportunities grow for kinesiology, school physical education programs, and community exercise and sport programs for young people to be redesigned in accordance with 21st century realities. While augmenting its technical problem solving capacities, kinesiology must wrestle with two new problem types. They compel new designs for kinesiology, including new relations among the subdisciplines, outcomes-focused interdisciplinary work, and expanded knowledge systems. This work entails different speci-fcations for school and community programs, and it also necessitates policy and systems changes. Design-oriented language, knowledge frameworks, and planning templates are needed, and so is intervention science. Disciplinary stewards, guided by Francis Bacon's ideals for science, can help realize America's promise to young people by developing synchronized designs for university, school, and community programs, leading to improved outcomes.

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Katherine Alaimo, Ellen M. Bassett, Risa Wilkerson, Karen Petersmarck, Jennifer Mosack, David Mendez, Chris Coutts, Lisa Grost and Lori Stegmier

Background:

This project updated and improved the Promoting Active Communities Program (PAC), a Web-based assessment that enables communities to scrutinize their programs, policies, and environments related to physical activity, generating ideas and community commitment for improvements.

Methods:

A literature review, focus groups, and expert review guided PAC improvements.

Results:

Over 150 articles and audit measures in the fields of transportation, public health, and urban planning were reviewed. Indicators were identified, categorized, and evaluated for use in the PAC. Focus-group participants communicated motivations, processes, and obstacles for completing the PAC and developing an action plan. Participants requested technical information to guide them in achieving active-living environments.

Conclusions:

Information gathered was used to improve the PAC Web site. A technical assistance document, Design Guidelines for Active Michigan Communities, was created to aid communities in creating active-living environments. The new PAC and Design Guidelines are available for public use at www.mihealthtools.org/communities.

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Rebecca A. Seguin, Christina D. Economos, Ruth Palombo, Raymond Hyatt, Julia Kuder and Miriam E. Nelson

Background:

Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises.

Methods:

The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women’s adherence to strength training after participation in the Strong Women Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as ≥4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants’ corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%).

Results:

Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 ± 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader’s sports participation (p = .028), and leader’s prior experience leading programs (p = .006).

Conclusion:

These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

improving social and emotional behaviors and academic performance ( 12 , 21 , 41 ). After-school physical activity programs can be delivered by schoolteachers and instructors of community programs and provide opportunity to nurture partnerships among schools, communities, and families ( 12 , 28 ). Some

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Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps and William D. Smart

efforts, a community program known as Go Baby Go has emerged to advocate for and provide access to modified ride-on cars for children with disabilities. There are approximately 75 national and international chapters of Go Baby Go, with a total of about 5000 cars in the community worldwide based on chapter

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Stefan Walzel, Jonathan Robertson and Christos Anagnostopoulos

articles did not focus on one particular sports context, and 15 publications conducted CSR research in more than one sport. Based on the Global Reporting Initiative’s ( 2014a ) categorization of social issues, community development and community programs ( n  = 40) accounted for more than half of the

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Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin

staff provided community program information, reduced community barriers (e.g., negotiated fee reductions), and offered limited one-on-one support as participants made the transition from separate to inclusive community fitness centers (e.g., individualized tour of facilities, attendance at initial

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Rodrigo S. Reis, Pedro C. Hallal, Diana C. Parra, Isabela C. Ribeiro, Ross C. Brownson, Michael Pratt, Christine M. Hoehner and Luiz Ramos

Background:

Community programs have been suggested to be an important and promising strategy for physical activity (PA) promotion. Limited evidence is available regarding knowledge of and participation in these programs in Latin America.

Objective:

To describe participation in and knowledge of community PA programs and to explore associations with leisure-time PA in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

Methods:

A cross sectional telephone survey was conducted among adults in Curitiba, Brazil (n = 2097). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine levels of PA, and specific questions were used to evaluate the extent to which respondents knew about or participated in the programs conducted by the municipality. Logistic regression was used to assess the meeting of PA recommendations in leisure time based on program knowledge and participation.

Results:

Knowledge of PA programs was high (91.6%) and 5.6% of population participated in the programs. After adjusting for individual characteristics, exposure to Curitiba's PA community programs was associated with leisure-time PA (POR = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.9−3.0) and walking for leisure (POR = 2.4; 95% CI = 2.3−2.4). The associations were stronger among men than among women.

Conclusions:

Knowledge and participation in Curitiba's community PA programs were associated with meeting recommended levels of PA in leisure time.

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Nancy A. Ecclestone, Anita M. Myers and Donald H. Paterson

The Centre for Activity and Ageing offers multiple physical activity programs for the general public of older adults. Using a database of 670 registrants, we tracked 541 individuals in 12 programs at the same location over a 3-year period (1992-1995). We found program differences in gender and age mix, attendance patterns, and long-term adherence. Overall, we found a 68% attendance rate and adherence rates of 59%, 51%, and 43% at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months, respectively. About 21% of participants tried out or transferred between programs during the tracking period, and these individuals were significantly more likely to remain at the center over 3 years. Longitudinal tracking demonstrates that program adherence is not necessarily the same as exercise adherence: older adults leave, rejoin, and switch exercise classes as their commitments and interests change. We project that 50% or more of older adults joining community programs will be long-term adherents to exercise.

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Sandra O'Brien Cousins

This study analyzed older women's (age 57–92, N = 32) descriptions of motivating triggers for physical activity. Among active women, activity was triggered by situations such as declining fitness levels, low bone density, more free time, fears about inadequate health care leading to self-care, expectations for reduced aches and pains, awareness of new community programs, and public reports of the health benefits. Semiactive women had doubts about the appropriateness of being active. Inactive people also experienced triggers but seemed firmly committed to a less active lifestyle by reminding themselves that retirement requires no commitments, exercise is not needed if you are healthy, exercise is not appropriate if you are ill, being very busy is a substitute activity, and serving others is less selfish. The findings suggest that active-living interventions might be more effectively aimed at semi active seniors who seem positively disposed to participating but need help to get started or to stay involved.