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Hal A. Lawson

As new designs are advanced for industrial age schools and universities, including cradle-to-career systems that connect them, needs and opportunities grow for kinesiology, school physical education programs, and community exercise and sport programs for young people to be redesigned in accordance with 21st century realities. While augmenting its technical problem solving capacities, kinesiology must wrestle with two new problem types. They compel new designs for kinesiology, including new relations among the subdisciplines, outcomes-focused interdisciplinary work, and expanded knowledge systems. This work entails different speci-fcations for school and community programs, and it also necessitates policy and systems changes. Design-oriented language, knowledge frameworks, and planning templates are needed, and so is intervention science. Disciplinary stewards, guided by Francis Bacon's ideals for science, can help realize America's promise to young people by developing synchronized designs for university, school, and community programs, leading to improved outcomes.

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Katherine Alaimo, Ellen M. Bassett, Risa Wilkerson, Karen Petersmarck, Jennifer Mosack, David Mendez, Chris Coutts, Lisa Grost and Lori Stegmier

Background:

This project updated and improved the Promoting Active Communities Program (PAC), a Web-based assessment that enables communities to scrutinize their programs, policies, and environments related to physical activity, generating ideas and community commitment for improvements.

Methods:

A literature review, focus groups, and expert review guided PAC improvements.

Results:

Over 150 articles and audit measures in the fields of transportation, public health, and urban planning were reviewed. Indicators were identified, categorized, and evaluated for use in the PAC. Focus-group participants communicated motivations, processes, and obstacles for completing the PAC and developing an action plan. Participants requested technical information to guide them in achieving active-living environments.

Conclusions:

Information gathered was used to improve the PAC Web site. A technical assistance document, Design Guidelines for Active Michigan Communities, was created to aid communities in creating active-living environments. The new PAC and Design Guidelines are available for public use at www.mihealthtools.org/communities.

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Robert Schinke, Hope Yungblut, Amy Blodgett, Mark Eys, Duke Peltier, Stephen Ritchie and Danielle Recollet-Saikkonen

Background:

There has been a recent push in the sport psychology literature for sport participants to be approached based on their cultural backgrounds. However, there are few examples where a cultural approach is considered, such as a culturally reflexive version of participatory action research (PAR). In the current study, the role of family is considered in relation to the sport engagement of Canadian Aboriginal youth.

Methods:

Mainstream researchers teamed with coresearchers from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve for 5 years. Community meetings and talking circles were employed as culturally sensitive data collection techniques to uncover how to encourage youth participation in Wikwemikong’s sport programs. The overarching methodology for the project is PAR.

Results:

Themes and subthemes were determined by community consensus with terms indigenous (ie, culturally relevant) among the local Aboriginal culture. Family was considered important for youth involvement in Aboriginal community sport programs. Parents were expected to support their children by managing schedules and priorities, providing transportation, financial support, encouragement, and being committed to the child’s activity. Aunts, uncles, cousins, siblings, grandparents, and the family as a whole were seen as sharing the responsibility to retain youth in sport through collateral support (ie, when gaps in parental support arose).

Conclusions:

Suggestions are proposed regarding how families in Aboriginal communities can collaborate to facilitate sport and physical activity among their youth. Further suggestions are proposed for researchers engaging in culturally reflexive research with participants and coresearchers from oppressed cultures.

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Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps and William D. Smart

conjunction with research efforts, a community program known as Go Baby Go has emerged to advocate for and provide access to modified ride-on cars for children with disabilities. There are approximately 75 national and international chapters of Go Baby Go, with a total of about 5000 cars in the community

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Stefan Walzel, Jonathan Robertson and Christos Anagnostopoulos

articles did not focus on one particular sports context, and 15 publications conducted CSR research in more than one sport. Based on the Global Reporting Initiative’s ( 2014a ) categorization of social issues, community development and community programs ( n  = 40) accounted for more than half of the

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Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin

staff provided community program information, reduced community barriers (e.g., negotiated fee reductions), and offered limited one-on-one support as participants made the transition from separate to inclusive community fitness centers (e.g., individualized tour of facilities, attendance at initial

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Rodrigo S. Reis, Pedro C. Hallal, Diana C. Parra, Isabela C. Ribeiro, Ross C. Brownson, Michael Pratt, Christine M. Hoehner and Luiz Ramos

Background:

Community programs have been suggested to be an important and promising strategy for physical activity (PA) promotion. Limited evidence is available regarding knowledge of and participation in these programs in Latin America.

Objective:

To describe participation in and knowledge of community PA programs and to explore associations with leisure-time PA in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

Methods:

A cross sectional telephone survey was conducted among adults in Curitiba, Brazil (n = 2097). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine levels of PA, and specific questions were used to evaluate the extent to which respondents knew about or participated in the programs conducted by the municipality. Logistic regression was used to assess the meeting of PA recommendations in leisure time based on program knowledge and participation.

Results:

Knowledge of PA programs was high (91.6%) and 5.6% of population participated in the programs. After adjusting for individual characteristics, exposure to Curitiba's PA community programs was associated with leisure-time PA (POR = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.9−3.0) and walking for leisure (POR = 2.4; 95% CI = 2.3−2.4). The associations were stronger among men than among women.

Conclusions:

Knowledge and participation in Curitiba's community PA programs were associated with meeting recommended levels of PA in leisure time.

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Sandra O'Brien Cousins

This study analyzed older women's (age 57–92, N = 32) descriptions of motivating triggers for physical activity. Among active women, activity was triggered by situations such as declining fitness levels, low bone density, more free time, fears about inadequate health care leading to self-care, expectations for reduced aches and pains, awareness of new community programs, and public reports of the health benefits. Semiactive women had doubts about the appropriateness of being active. Inactive people also experienced triggers but seemed firmly committed to a less active lifestyle by reminding themselves that retirement requires no commitments, exercise is not needed if you are healthy, exercise is not appropriate if you are ill, being very busy is a substitute activity, and serving others is less selfish. The findings suggest that active-living interventions might be more effectively aimed at semi active seniors who seem positively disposed to participating but need help to get started or to stay involved.

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Nancy A. Ecclestone, Anita M. Myers and Donald H. Paterson

The Centre for Activity and Ageing offers multiple physical activity programs for the general public of older adults. Using a database of 670 registrants, we tracked 541 individuals in 12 programs at the same location over a 3-year period (1992-1995). We found program differences in gender and age mix, attendance patterns, and long-term adherence. Overall, we found a 68% attendance rate and adherence rates of 59%, 51%, and 43% at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months, respectively. About 21% of participants tried out or transferred between programs during the tracking period, and these individuals were significantly more likely to remain at the center over 3 years. Longitudinal tracking demonstrates that program adherence is not necessarily the same as exercise adherence: older adults leave, rejoin, and switch exercise classes as their commitments and interests change. We project that 50% or more of older adults joining community programs will be long-term adherents to exercise.