With an increasing emphasis on the social value of sport and events, there has been a shift in focus regarding the management and development process of event projects as well as their associated outcomes. This shift is about emphasizing a more strategic approach to developing social benefits by recognizing and utilizing leverageable resources related to sport events as a means of fostering lasting social and economic change (Chalip, 2006; O’Brien & Chalip, 2007; Schulenkorf & Edwards, 2012). In this paper, we adapt and apply the asset-based community development (ABCD) approach as a means of developing a more action-oriented, community-based approach to leveraging the social assets of sporting events. In applying the ABCD approach, we aim to shift the focus of event-led projects away from attempts to “solve” social problems (i.e., deficit perspective) to enhancing the existing strengths of communities (i.e., strengths perspective). We reflect on case study findings that highlight the challenges and opportunities in realizing an ABCD approach for disadvantaged communities through an examination of a healthy lifestyle community event initiative in the Pacific Islands.
Laura Misener and Nico Schulenkorf
Susan E. Vail
Many sport organizations face the challenge of declining sport participation. Traditional methods of addressing this challenge such as promotional ads and top-down initiatives that ignore community needs have not succeeded in sustaining sport participation. This action research study assessed the impact of the building tennis communities model, a community development approach based on three key elements: identifying a community champion, developing collaborative partnerships, and delivering quality sport programming. Eighteen communities across Canada were supported by the national sport governing body, Tennis Canada, to participate in the study. Findings demonstrated that communities were able to identify a community champion and deliver quality programs that aimed to increase and sustain tennis participation; however, partnership building was implemented in a very preliminary and incomplete manner. Recommendations about the benefits of using a community development approach to not only increase sport participation but also develop communities through sport are presented with implications for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners.
Gareth J. Jones, Elizabeth Taylor, Christine Wegner, Colin Lopez, Heather Kennedy, and Anthony Pizzo
Sport events have long been utilized as platforms for bridging social divides and promoting community development ( Welty Peachey, Borland, Lobpries, & Cohen, 2015 ). Although positive social outcomes are often assumed to be inherent by-products of sport events, previous research highlights the
Laura Misener and Daniel S. Mason
This article examines the perceptions of members of urban regimes in three cities: Edmonton, Manchester, and Melbourne, regarding the use sporting events for broadbased community outcomes. In Edmonton, members of the urban regime interviewed did not perceive the sporting events strategy to be directly tied to community development objectives. In Manchester and Melbourne, regime members believed that the use of events for development was uniquely tied to communities and community development goals. In addition, regime members in the latter two cities provided examples of symbolic attempts to foster community around the sporting events strategies. While this study could not reveal whether attempts to meet the needs of local communities were being achieved through the sporting events strategies, it is at least encouraging to note that those who control resources and conceive of, oversee, and implement growth strategies within cities view community development as important to these strategies.
Richard Suminski, Jason A. Wasserman, Carlene A. Mayfield, Micah Kubic, and Julie Porter
Community development corporations (CDC) are worldwide entities that create environments facilitating physical activity. At the same time, researchers face challenges conducting cost-effective, longitudinal studies on how environmental changes affect physical activity.
To provide evidence suggesting that CDC initiatives could potentially be integrated into a research framework for examining the influence of environmental improvements on physical activity.
Quality of Life Plans (QLP) developed by a CDC and stakeholders from 6 lower-income neighborhoods were systematically reviewed to obtain data about environmental features targeted for change and the strategies used to bring about those changes. Strategies were deemed pro–physical activity if previous studies suggested they have the potential to affect physical activity.
A total of 348 strategies were proposed of which 164 were pro–physical activity. Six environmental features were targeted including crime (57 strategies), aesthetics (39), facilities (30), walkability (17), destinations (14), and programs (5). Strategies involved implementing (90 strategies), planning (33), assessing (26), and securing funding (13). Progress reports indicated that 37.4% of the pro–physical activity strategies were implemented 1 year following the development of the QLPs.
These results suggest that activities of CDCs could potentially be systematically integrated into the scientific study of environmental influences on physical activity.
NaRi Shin and Jon Welty Peachey
accommodate observed lacunae or anomalies” (p. 28). That is, scholars need to rigorously check and recheck how theories actually operate on the ground ( Reyes, 2019 ). Because we considered the global–local nexus as central to community development in our study, using GE as a methodological and
Susan G. Zieff, Mi-Sook Kim, Jackson Wilson, and Patrick Tierney
Temporary parks such as the monthly event, Sunday Streets SF, support public health goals by using existing infrastructure and street closures to provide physical activity in neighborhoods underserved for recreational resources. Sunday Streets creates routes to enhance community connection.
Six hundred and thirty-nine participants at 3 Sunday Streets events were surveyed using a 36-item instrument of open- and closed-ended questions about overall physical activity behavior, physical activity while at Sunday Streets, experience of the events, and demographic data.
Overall, Sunday Streets participants are physically active (79% engage in activity 3–7 days/week) and approximately represent the ethnic minority distribution of the city. There were significant differences between first-time attendees and multiple-event attendees by duration of physical activity at the event (55.83 minutes vs. 75.13 minutes) and by frequency of physical activity bouts per week (3.69 vs. 4.22). Both groups emphasized the positive experience and safe environment as reasons to return to the event; for first-time attendees, the social environment was another reason to return.
Temporary parks like Sunday Streets have the potential to provide healthful, population-wide physical activity using existing streets. The trend toward increased activity by multiple-event attendees suggests the importance of a regular schedule of events.
Glynn M. McGehee, Armin A. Marquez, Beth A. Cianfrone, and Timothy Kellison
multitude of public stakeholders that could be affected by a large-scale community development and stadium project, there is reason to expect that the university and public stakeholders will communicate different attitudes toward the development project. The purpose of this study was to analyze the
Jeanette Steinmann, Brian Wilson, Mitchell McSweeney, Emerald Bandoles, and Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst
Safe space, which refers to both a physical and psychosocial space cultivated through social relations ( Spaaij & Schulenkorf, 2014 ; see Kenney, 2001 ; Stengel & Weems, 2010 ), can be vital for youth programs and community development. This paper analyzes youth participants’ experiences in a
Gareth J. Jones, Christine E. Wegner, Kyle S. Bunds, Michael B. Edwards, and Jason N. Bocarro
promoting community development ( Schulenkorf, Sherry, & Rowe, 2016 ). Well-designed SFD programs provide settings to unite divided communities behind sport teams, events, and programs ( Schulenkorf, 2010 ), and the strategic management of SFD organizations can help strengthen social relations and build