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Kent Griffin

Physical education in recent years has undergone modifications in order to meet the changing demands of students. The traditional paradigm has been to teach physical education from a sport- and skill-based approach, whereby traditional teams and individual sports are emphasized (e.g., basketball, volleyball, flag football). However, this curriculum may be less impactful on student learning than alternatives and is not viewed favorably by administrators because it is perceived as lacking relevance to broader educational goals. The purpose of this paper was to reintroduce a curriculum that has the potential to address student learning in physical education and broader educational goals. The outdoor/adventure education curriculum, while neglected in recent years, is demonstrating promising gains as a viable model.

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Christina A. Taylor and Joonkoo Yun

This study examined the psychometric properties of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS) for use with children with mental retardation (MR). Eleven children with MR were videotaped while participating in a university-based community outreach program. Actiwatch accelerometers were used as the criterion measure. Results indicated that SOFIT and CARS both demonstrated adequate levels of generalizability (ϕ= 0.98 and 0.75), but a low concurrent validity coefficient for SOFIT (r = .10) and a moderate level of validity coefficient for CARS (r = .61) were observed. CARS demonstrates stronger validity evidence than SOFIT, but it is important to have sufficient rater training before using CARS for measuring physical activity level of children with MR.

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Patricia Kelshaw, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell, and Shane V. Caswell

coaches and community outreach programs have promoted cervical strengthening exercises to combat SRC risk. 33 , 34 Yet, the current status of CMS in regard to HIK mitigation, including our findings, suggest further appropriate investigation to identify risk factors for SRC. 15 , 20 , 31 Future Research

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Norah L. Johnson, Abir K. Bekhet, Rachel Sawdy, Emily Zint, June Wang, Sylvia Pena, Hannah Zurcher, and Nina Enea

and engaged. Adults appreciated restorative aspects of nature and children preferred competitive experiences. Community outreach programs should educate, train, and create opportunities to engage children in healthy activities that will become lifelong habits. George et al 22 Qualitative cross

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

, recruitment events, community outreach programs, and study hall. These activities occurred regularly (e.g., weekly) within the confines of the athletic arena. Treatments were the most time consuming, taking anywhere from 30 minutes to 3 hours per day and affecting every athlete in the sample. Supervised by

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Christine Galvan, Karen Meaney, and Virginia Gray

institutions have refocused their missions and have moved toward conducting more community outreach programs ( Strand, Marullo, Cutforth, Stoecker, & Donohue, 2003 ). The most widely promoted strategy for accomplishing these goals has been some form of student involvement in communities, most typically in the

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Nicholas M. Watanabe

and community outreach programs that resonate with stakeholder groups that can mitigate these impacts. Sport events invest considerable amounts of financial and human resources into sustainability initiatives that engage spectators before and during an event ( Trail, 2016 ). Proactive sport events

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Brennan K. Berg, Yuhei Inoue, Matthew T. Bowers, and Packianathan Chelladurai

.g., events), sponsorship (e.g., in-game advertisements), and social idea (e.g., community outreach programs) services—may influence either of the three domains (physical, mental, and social) of well-being identified in the World Health Organization ( n.d ) definition of health. Some of the themes are also concerned with

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Daniel Yang and Kathy Babiak

through grant/cash or in-kind donations to numerous charities ( Inoue et al., 2011 ). However, they also often engage in a more strategic approach to CP by broadening the spectrum of social causes addressed and implementing various community outreach programs (called “program service expenses” on 990