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Gregory Knell, Deborah Salvo, Kerem Shuval, Casey Durand, Harold W. Kohl III and Kelley P. Gabriel

illustrate this approach and to demonstrate its utility, we used data from an ongoing community-based study to identify participant profiles with varying protocol compliance and thresholds for outstanding accelerometer pursuit. Methodology For the purposes of this study, an outstanding accelerometer is

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

-life, community-based setting. It is unsure if the results found were based solely on the LIFE program or if the LIFE program served as a means for participants to be encouraged to seek other ways of being physically active. Furthermore, all data were self-reported, which limits interpretation of findings

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Mette Rørth, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Prue Cormie, John L. Oliffe and Julie Midtgaard

. The idea was to introduce recreational community-based football as a novel approach to prostate cancer rehabilitation characterized by a time-unlimited intervention, continuous enrollment of participants, and mobilizing of local resources and partners using existing infrastructure for physical

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Johan Pelssers, Christophe Delecluse, Joke Opdenacker, Eva Kennis, Evelien Van Roie and Filip Boen

This study evaluated “Every Step Counts!”—a 10-wk, structured walking intervention in a community-based senior organization—on promoting physical activity participation, fitness, and well-being among older adults (age ≥ 55 yr). The intervention prescribed pedometer-defined walks in weekly walking schedules. These were fitness-tailored and structured in walking load (intensity/volume) according to the principles of training progression. This intervention was offered as a social activity at meeting points of a community-based senior organization. Twenty-nine meeting points (n = 432) constituted the intervention condition. Ten meeting points (n = 148) formed the wait-list control condition. Measurements were organized at intervention start (pretest) and end (posttest). Intention-to-treat linear mixed models showed small positive intervention effects on physical activity, fitness, and aspects of well-being. These results confirm the effectiveness of structured walking interventions with systematic training progression and underscore the value of community-based senior organizations as intervention settings for older adults.

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Adrienne J. McNamara, Michael J. Pavol and Katherine B. Gunter

Objective:

Community-based exercise programs are popular for achieving physical activity among older adults, but the amount of physical activity obtained through such programs is unknown. This study quantified the bone-loading forces and levels of cardiovascular activity associated with participation in “Better Bones and Balance” (BBB), a community-based fall- and fracture-prevention program for older adults.

Methods:

Thirty-six postmenopausal women age 73.2 ± 7.6 yr engages in BBB participated in this study. Ground-reaction forces (GRFs) associated with BBB exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Session and weekly totals of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total time spent above 55% maximum heart rate (HR) were measured using accelerometers and HR monitors, respectively.

Results:

BBB exercises produced mean 1-leg GRFs of 1.4–2.2 units body weight. Weekly BBB participation was associated with 126 ± 31 min of MVPA.

Conclusion:

Activity obtained by BBB participation meets recommended guidelines for skeletal and cardiovascular health.

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Anita L. Stewart

The term “community-based” can refer to many types of physical activity interventions. The bulk of physical activity research in older adults focuses on changing individual behavior, sometimes in community settings. Addressing the nation’s goal of increasing the proportion of physically active older adults requires more programs to improve contextual factors that support individual behavior and calls for introducing into community settings successful individual-level programs based on solid research. The social ecology model provides an ideal multilevel framework for community-wide efforts. In conjunction with programs to increase the types and levels of physical activity of older adults, changes can be directed at social, cultural, environmental, institutional, and policy contexts for individual behavior change. Guidelines and evaluation methods, including cost analysis of developing, implementing, and sustaining programs, are needed. Recommendations are made to advance community-based strategies for promoting physical activity among adults age 50 and older.

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Elizabeth Orsega-Smith, Laura L. Payne and Geoffry Godbey

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based exercise program for adults 60 years and older. Specifically, the authors sought to examine selected physical and psychosocial indicators of health among low-, moderate-, and high-frequency participants. Data on selected physical-fitness variables from baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments were available for 196 members. In addition, 265 current members completed a mailed questionnaire regarding frequency of program participation, health, demographics, and psychosocial outcomes. Significant improvements in endurance and flexibility were documented for the group at large over 6 months, and the low-participation group showed a significant increase in flexibility. Self-efficacy was higher for those in both the low- and high-frequency groups than for those in the moderate-participation group. Exercise-based social support was reported to be higher among the low- and high-participation groups than among the moderate-participation group. Results suggest that community-based programs and community parks and recreation agencies are a viable context for senior exercise/physical activity programs.

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Fátima Ramalho, Filomena Carnide, Rita Santos-Rocha, Helô-Isa André, Vera Moniz-Pereira, Maria L. Machado and António P. Veloso

Functional fitness (FF) and gait ability in older populations have been associated with increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. One possible intervention for the improvement of FF is well-structured exercise programs. However, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters. The aim of this protocol is to develop a community-based exercise intervention targeting an older population. The intervention aim is the improvement of gait parameters and FF. A control trial with follow-up will be performed. The primary outcome variables will be plantar pressure gait parameters. The secondary outcome variables will be aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, agility, and balance. These variables will be recorded at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks, in the intervention and control groups. If effective, this protocol can be used by exercise professionals in improving community exercise programs.

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Brian Cook, Trisha M. Karr, Christie Zunker, James E. Mitchell, Ron Thompson, Roberta Sherman, Ross D. Crosby, Li Cao, Ann Erickson and Stephen A. Wonderlich

The purpose of our study was to examine exercise dependence (EXD) in a large community-based sample of runners. The secondary purpose of this study was to examine differences in EXD symptoms between primary and secondary EXD. Our sample included 2660 runners recruited from a local road race (M age = 38.78 years, SD = 10.80; 66.39% women; 91.62% Caucasian) who completed all study measures online within 3 weeks of the race. In this study, EXD prevalence was lower than most previously reported rates (gamma = .248, p < .001) and individuals in the at-risk for EXD category participated in longer distance races, F(8,1) = 14.13, p = .01, partial eta squared = .05. Group differences were found for gender, F(1,1921) 8.08, p = .01, partial eta squared = .004, and primary or secondary group status, F(1,1921) 159.53, p = .01, partial eta squared = .077. Implications of primary and secondary EXD differences and future research are discussed.

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Sheri J. Brock, Danielle Wadsworth, Shelby Foote and Mary E. Rudisill

Institutions of higher education have a responsibility to prioritize the needs of society and local communities. One essential need prevalent in all communities is to address the rise of obesity and health risks due to lack of participation in physical activity. In the United States, children spend a small percentage of time engaged in physical activity, and engagement decreases further in adolescence and adulthood. Collaborative partnerships between kinesiology faculty at universities and community organizations are one avenue for engaging children in physical activity. Partnerships must be multilevel and community wide to evoke change and have long-term impact and sustainability. Within the context of community-based research, we propose a three-step framework for establishing collaborative partnerships: (1) determining the needs of partners; (2) discussing expertise, services, and philosophy; and (3) providing a quality product. In addition, we outline and illustrate our experiences when collaborating with community partners to promote physical activity.