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Sheri J. Brock, Danielle Wadsworth, Shelby Foote, and Mary E. Rudisill

Institutions of higher education have a responsibility to prioritize the needs of society and local communities. One essential need prevalent in all communities is to address the rise of obesity and health risks due to lack of participation in physical activity. In the United States, children spend a small percentage of time engaged in physical activity, and engagement decreases further in adolescence and adulthood. Collaborative partnerships between kinesiology faculty at universities and community organizations are one avenue for engaging children in physical activity. Partnerships must be multilevel and community wide to evoke change and have long-term impact and sustainability. Within the context of community-based research, we propose a three-step framework for establishing collaborative partnerships: (1) determining the needs of partners; (2) discussing expertise, services, and philosophy; and (3) providing a quality product. In addition, we outline and illustrate our experiences when collaborating with community partners to promote physical activity.

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Yasuhiko Kubota, Alvaro Alonso, Amil M. Shah, Lin Y. Chen, and Aaron R. Folsom

Background: There is no research on the association of television (TV) watching with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: From 1987 to 1989, the authors obtained information on the frequency of TV watching in 14,458 participants, aged 45–64 years, without a history of AF. The authors used the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of AF according to the frequency of TV watching (“never or seldom,” “sometimes,” “often,” or “very often”). Results: During the 294,553 person-years of follow-up, the authors identified 2,476 AF events. Adjustment for other potential confounding factors, including physical activity, did not change the associations, in which “very often” watching TV carried 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.09–1.50) times AF risk compared with “never or seldom” watching TV (P for trend = .002). Even among individuals who met a recommended level of physical activity, watching TV “very often” carried 1.36 (1.02–1.82) times AF risk, compared with watching TV “never or seldom.” Conclusion: Greater frequency of TV watching was independently associated with increased risk of AF even after adjusting for physical activity. Moreover, a recommended level of physical activity did not eliminate the increased risk of frequent TV watching for AF. Avoiding frequent TV watching might be beneficial for AF prevention.

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq, and Yori Gidron

Background: Effects of health education (HE) on physical activity (PA) are limited. Also, HE fails to address people’s personal barriers and social pressures. In contrast, “psychological inoculation” (PI) targets both topics. This research examined the effects of PI versus HE on PA-related barriers and on self-reported PA in 2 studies. Methods: Randomized controlled trials were employed. Study 1 (N = 20) took place in Britain, while study 2 (N = 40) in Belgium, with nonphysically active participants. PI exposed people to challenging sentences reflecting barriers concerning PA, which they had to refute. In study 1, PA barriers and self-reported PA levels were assessed before and a week after interventions. In study 2, the degree of refuting challenging sentences was estimated and the level of PA was assessed before and 2 months after interventions. Results: In study 1, in the PI condition alone, PA barriers significantly decreased and self-reported PA increased. Change in barriers correlated with posttreatment PA. In study 2, PA increased only in the PI group. Level of rejecting challenging sentences predicted PA later. Most group differences remained when controlling for baseline measures. Conclusions: PI is more effective than HE for increasing PA, and reducing its barriers is essential for this.

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Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Jennifer Wolch, Chih-Ping Chou, Michael Jerrett, Jason Byrne, Susan Weaver, and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Efforts to increase community levels of physical activity through the development of multiuse urban trails could be strengthened by information about factors predicting trail use. This study examined whether reasons for trail use predict levels of physical activity on urban trails.

Methods:

Adults (N = 335) living within a 1-mile buffer zone of urban trails in Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles completed a self-report measure assessing demographics, reason for trail use, and physical activity on the trail. Accelerometers measured total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Environmental features of the urban trail were assessed with the Systematic Pedestrian and Cyclist Environmental Scan for trails measure. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted that accounted for clustering of individuals within trail segments.

Results:

After controlling for demographic and environmental factors and total daily MVPA, reasons for trail use significantly predicted recreational but not transportation activity. Recreational trail activity was greater for participants who reported exercise and health reasons for trail use as compared with other reasons (ie, social interaction, enjoying nature, walking pets) for recreational trail use.

Conclusions:

To increase the use of urban trails, it may be useful to promote the health and exercise benefits of recreational trail use.

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Jennifer L. Huberty, Michael W. Beets, Aaron Beighle, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, and Greg Welk

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Ready for Recess, an elementary school recess intervention targeting staff training (ST) or providing recreational equipment (EQ) separately, and the combination (EQ+ST) on physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Participants were children attending 1 of 12 elementary schools (grades 3rd–6th) included in the study. Separate analytical models were used to evaluate the effects of the intervention conditions on children’s accelerometry and direct observation derived PA measures.

Results:

Boys and girls were measured using accelerometry (n = 667). Boys in EQ+ST increased their MVPA by 14.1% while ST decreased their MVPA by –13.5%. Girls in ST decreased their MVPA by –11.4%. Neither boys nor girls in EQ increased their time spent in MVPA. A total of 523 (boys) and 559 (girls) observations were collected. For boys’ and girls’ sedentary and vigorous activity there were no significant main effects for treatment condition, time, or treatment condition-by-time effects.

Conclusions:

Environmental modifications are only as strong as the staff that implements them. Supervision, if not interactive, may be detrimental to PA participation, especially in girls. Research related to staff training for encouragement and promotion of PA coupled with appropriate use of equipment during recess is warranted.

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Vernon M. Grant, Emily J. Tomayko, Ronald J. Prince, Kate Cronin, and Alexandra Adams

Background: Little is known about factors contributing to physical activity (PA) in American Indian (AI) populations. Addressing this gap is paramount as sedentary activity and obesity continue to increase in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with PA among AI families with young children. Methods: Height and weight of both adult (n = 423) and child (n = 390) were measured, and surveys assessed demographics, PA, stress (adult only), sleep, and screen time. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for adults and children (reported as adjusted odds ratios, aORs). Results: For adults, age (aOR = 0.952; P ≤ .001), television viewing (aOR = 0.997; P = .01), and computer use (aOR = 0.996; P = .003) decreased the odds of being active. For children, high adult activity (aOR = 1.795; P ≤ .01), longer weekday sleep (aOR = 1.004; P = .01), and family income >$35,000 (aOR = 2.772; P = .01) increased the odds of being active. We found no association between adult PA with stress or adult sleep or between child PA with body mass index and screen time. Conclusions: Given the complexity of the factors contributing to obesity among AI families, multigenerational interventions focused on healthy lifestyle change such as decreasing adult screen time and increasing child sleep time may be needed to increase PA within AI families.

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Suzanna M. Martinez, Elva M. Arredondo, Scott Roesch, Kevin Patrick, Guadalupe X. Ayala, and John P. Elder

Background:

U.S. Latinos engage in nonleisure-time walking (NLTW) more than other ethno-racial groups. Studies are needed to explore factors associated with NLTW to inform interventions for effective physical activity promotion.

Purpose:

To examine the social-ecological correlates of NLTW among Mexican-origin Latinos.

Methods:

Individual, social, and environmental level factors and PA were assessed in a telephone survey completed by 672 Mexican-origin adults randomly sampled in San Diego County. Data were collected in 2006 and analyzed in 2009.

Results:

Participants were mostly female (71%), with an average age of 39 years. Less than one-third met PA guidelines for NLTW (29%). Structural equation modeling showed that NLTW was positively associated with being female, but negatively associated with living in the U.S. ≥ 12 years, and being U.S.-born.

Conclusions:

In this sample NLTW differed by various indicators of acculturation and gender. These findings might help inform the development of interventions to promote NLTW and thus physical activity in Mexican-origin adults.

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Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback

Background: There is a paucity of studies, especially among diverse populations, demonstrating the effects of policy and environmental interventions to increase regular physical activity. The Grow Healthy Together Chattanooga project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of physical activity policy and environmental interventions on the physical activity among predominately African American children living in the inner city. Methods: Using the System for Observing Physical Activity and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), the authors examined the physical activity of children along urban pedestrian/bike routes/trails and recreational park areas within the boundaries of the Grow Healthy Together Chattanooga communities. SOPARC data were collected at baseline (fall 2010/spring 2011) and repeated (spring 2014) in each community. Results: The SOPARC assessments yielded a total of 692 child/youth observations in 2010 and 806 observations in 2014. Children/youth observed in 2014 were greater than 2 times the odds of engaging in moderate/vigorous physical activity compared with their 2010 counterparts (odds ratio  = 2.75, 95% confidence interval, 1.43–5.32). Conclusions: The present findings support the hypothesis that policy and environmental interventions can contribute to increased physical activity levels among children/youth over ∼3-year period. These results provide evidence that improved access to “urban” pedestrian/bicycle routes/trails appears to translate into increased opportunities for physical activity among inner city children/youth.

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Jamie Zoellner, Alicia Powers, Amanda Avis-Williams, Murugi Ndirangu, Earline Strickland, and Kathy Yadrick

Background:

Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations.

Methods:

Community “coaches” led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included wearing pedometers and maintaining pedometer diaries for the study duration. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA tests were used to evaluate compliance rates for maintaining diaries and daily step counts. After the intervention, focus groups were used to explore opinions regarding pedometers. Audiotapes were transcribed and evaluated using systematic content analysis.

Results:

The 8 coaches and 75 enrolled walking participants were primarily African American (98%) women (94%). Overall, the group (N = 83) submitted 85% of all possible pedometer diaries and recorded 73% of all possible daily step counts. Walking-group members were significantly (P < .01) more compliant if their coach was also compliant. Identified benefits of wearing pedometers and maintaining diaries outnumbered the barriers. Participants were enthusiastic about wearing the pedometers and indicated that the weekly diaries provided a source of motivation.

Conclusions:

This research suggests pedometer diaries are a viable intervention tool and research method for community-based physical activity interventions targeting African Americans and highlights the need for social support to promote pedometer diary compliance.

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Kathleen Y. Wolin, Daniel P. Heil, Sandy Askew, Charles E. Matthews, and Gary G. Bennett

Background:

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) has been evaluated against accelerometer-determined physical activity measures in small homogenous samples of adults in the United States. There is limited information about the validity of the IPAQ-S in diverse US samples.

Methods:

142 Blacks residing in low-income housing completed the IPAQ-S and wore an accelerometer for up to 6 days. Both 1- and 10-minute accelerometer bouts were used to define time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity.

Results:

We found fair agreement between the IPAQ-S and accelerometer-determined physical activity (r = .26 for 10-minute bout, r = .36 for 1-minute bout). Correlations were higher among men than women. When we classified participants as meeting physical activity recommendations, agreement was low (kappa = .04, 10-minute; kappa = .21, 1-minute); only 25% of individuals were classified the same by both instruments (10-minute bout).

Conclusions:

In one of the few studies to assess the validity of a self-reported physical activity measure among Blacks, we found moderate correlations with accelerometer data, though correlations were weaker for women. Correlations were smaller when IPAQ-S data were compared using a 10- versus a 1-minute bout definition. There was limited evidence for agreement between the instruments when classifying participants as meeting physical activity recommendations.