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Julia Freedman Silvernail, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Katherine Boyer, Michael A. Busa and Joseph Hamill

itself 2 – 4 but have instead chosen to focus on coupling angle variability. 5 , 6 This may be in part due to the challenges in dealing with and interpreting directional data. When properly accounted for, group comparisons of the coupling angle will allow for an expanded understanding of the movement

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Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski and Shane Pill

that players develop their ability to recognise when and what they need to be more effective, in comparison to practice that relies on coach interventions. Games that are designed on a meta-level develop deliberate learners who can produce new knowledge by being pro-active in teaching themselves, or

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Rebecca M. Achen, John Kaczorowski, Trisha Horsmann and Alanda Ketzler

in the same equation. Finally, this study endeavored to determine whether differences in content strategy and social-media interaction exist across the six professional sport leagues in the United States, a comprehensive comparison that is rare in the social media in sport literature. The content

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Jennifer Ostrowski, C. Collin Herb, James Scifers, Teraka Gonzalez, Amada Jennings and Danvirg Breton

intramuscular heating (temperatures at 4-min intervals). Difference in rate of heating was evaluated by examining for the presence of a significant treatment-by-time interaction and associated pairwise comparisons (calculated using syntax in SPSS version 21; SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). We used the least significant

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

femoris, the HM are biarticular; thus, single-joint motion at the hip or knee may affect recruitment differently in comparison with simultaneous hip and knee motion. Previous findings have indicated that hip and knee motion may be controlled primarily by the proximal and distal regions of the muscle

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Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan

RT6 monitors as well as the appropriate placement and cut-points to determine activity intensities across lab- and field-based activities in young adults, this study sought to address this gap in young adults (18–30 years) with four aims: 1) to examine criterion validity of the RT6 in comparison to

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Tamar Semerjian and Dawn Stephens

This study examined the relationships between older women’s comparison styles, physical self-perceptions, and functional fitness. Participants were community-dwelling women (N = 102, age 65-99) living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Individuals were categorized as relying primarily on social comparisons, temporal comparisons, or a combination of both styles. Also of interest was whether individuals evaluated themselves positively or negatively when making comparisons. Participants who evaluated themselves positively as compared with others were found to have higher levels of physical self-perception. Analyses revealed that women who relied primarily on temporal comparisons had higher self-perceptions of their functional ability than those who relied on a combination of comparison styles. An avoidance of both temporal and social comparisons was also related to higher levels of physical self-perception.

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Leonard M. Wankel and Philip S.J. Kreisel

A review of open-ended and structured approaches to assessing youth sport motivation reveals that each has certain strengths and limitations. Hence, the method of choice for a particular study will depend upon the particular problem addressed. In order to examine the comparability of results obtained from different methodologies, a study was conducted to compare the results pertaining to factors underlying sport enjoyment obtained from open-ended and Thurstonian paired comparison inventories. Although a number of similarities appeared in the results across the two methodologies (e.g., personal accomplishment, excitement of the sport, and just doing the skills were important, while getting rewards and pleasing others were relatively unimportant), there were also some differences reflecting the particular methodologies. A consideration of previous research employing a broader variety of methodological approaches (open-ended, ranking, Likert scaling, Thurstone paired comparisons) further indicates that although the particular methodology utilized does affect the results obtained, certain important motivational factors tend to surface regardless of the methodology employed.

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Gustavo Ramos Dalla Bernardina, Tony Monnet, Heber Teixeira Pinto, Ricardo Machado Leite de Barros, Pietro Cerveri and Amanda Piaia Silvatti

from 1∶2000 to 1∶7000 13 , 14 in air and underwater static conditions, are evidence to suggest that ASC systems perform comparatively with MOCAP systems for such 3D analysis. However, at the present time, no concurrent comparisons between ASC and MOCAP systems have been performed, through simultaneous

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

.J. ( 1975 ). Comparison of automated and standard administration of the Purdue Pegboard with mentally retarded adults . Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40 ( 2 ), 371 – 374 . PubMed ID: 1178298 10.2466/pms.1975.40.2.371 Hackel , M.E. , Wolfe , G.A. , Bang , S.M. , & Canfield , J.S. ( 1992