The purpose of this study was to develop a compendium of wheelchair-related physical activities. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic review of the published energy costs of activities performed by individuals who use wheelchairs. A total of 266 studies were identified by a literature search using relevant keywords. Inclusion criteria were studies utilizing individuals who routinely use a manual wheelchair, indirect calorimetry as the criterion measurement, energy expenditure expressed as METs or VO2, and physical activities typical of wheelchair users. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 63 different wheelchair activities were identified with energy expenditure values ranging from 0.8 to 12.5 kcal·kg-1·hr-1. The energy requirements for some activities differed between individuals who use wheelchairs and those who do not. The compendium of wheelchair-related activities can be used to enhance scoring of physical activity surveys and to promote the benefits of activity in this population.
Scott A. Conger and David R. Bassett Jr.
Karin A. Pfeiffer, Kathleen B. Watson, Robert G. McMurray, David R. Bassett, Nancy F. Butte, Scott E. Crouter, Stephen D. Herrmann, Stewart G. Trost, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Janet E. Fulton, David Berrigan and For the CDC/NCI/NCCOR Research Group
The Compendium of Physical Activities standardized the coding of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) by activity type and intensity [metabolic equivalents (METs)] for adults ( 2 ). According to the Adult Compendium, an MET is the activity metabolic rate divided by the resting metabolic rate
Catrine Tudor-Locke, Tracy L. Washington, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Richard P. Troiano
The 2003 Bureau of Labor Statistics American Time Use Survey (ATUS) contains 438 distinct primary activity variables that can be analyzed with regard to how time is spent by Americans. The Compendium of Physical Activities is used to code physical activities derived from various surveys, logs, diaries, etc to facilitate comparison of coded intensity levels across studies.
This article describes the methods, challenges, and rationale for linking Compendium estimates of physical activity intensity (METs, metabolic equivalents) with all activities reported in the 2003 ATUS.
The assigned ATUS intensity levels are not intended to compute the energy costs of physical activity in individuals. Instead, they are intended to be used to identify time spent in activities broadly classified by type and intensity. This function will complement public health surveillance systems and aid in policy and health-promotion activities. For example, at least one of the future projects of this process is the descriptive epidemiology of time spent in common physical activity intensity categories.
The process of metabolic coding of the ATUS by linking it with the Compendium of Physical Activities can make important contributions to our understanding of American’s time spent in health-related physical activity.
James B. Dear, Michelle M. Porter and A. Elizabeth Ready
This study compared the intensity and energy cost of playing 9 holes of golf with 40 min of lawn mowing in older men and determined whether both met the current recommendations for health benefits. Eighteen men (age 71.2 ± 4.4 yr, BMI 27.3 ± 2.3; M ± SD) completed a graded treadmill test. During golfing and lawn-mowing field tests, oxygen consumption and walking velocity and distance were measured using a portable metabolic system and global positioning system receiver. The net energy costs of golfing and lawn mowing were 310 and 246 kcal, respectively. The average intensities in metabolic equivalents of golfing and lawn mowing were 2.8 ± 0.5 and 5.5 ± 0.9, respectively. Both lawn mowing and golfing met the original intensity and energy expenditure requirements for health benefits specified by the American College of Sports Medicine in 1998, but only lawn mowing met the 2007 intensity recommendations.
Stephen D. Herrmann and Karin A. Pfeiffer
Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock and Norman Wirsik
To effectively estimate energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity in children, Ridley et al 1 developed the Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth (CEEY). The compendium designates metabolic equivalents (METs) to a broad compilation of everyday activities performed by youth. METs are
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Wendy J. Brown, Tina L. Skinner and G.M.E.E. (Geeske) Peeters
activities according to level of intensity. For example, self-reported 24-hour recalls of all activities 1 rely on MET values from the compendium of physical activities (CPAs) 2 to deduce total daily EE based on reported activities. Most commonly used surveillance questionnaires (including the
Estela Farías-Torbidoni, Demir Barić and Sebastià Mas-Alòs
its MET values, that is, the ratio of an individual’s working metabolic rate relative to his or her resting metabolic rate. 10 MET values are well documented in the Compendium of PA 11 and include 4 basic PA intensities, such as sedentary behavior, ≤1.5 METs; light intensity, 1.6–2.9 METs; moderate
Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey Keadle, John Staudenmayer, Patty Freedson and Sofiya Alhassan
The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values.
To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium.
Thirty-two children (8−11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12−16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer.
In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1−3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3−2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m·s-1, 1.56 m·s-1, and 1.34 m·s-1 (0.4−0.8 METs lower)].
The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.