The literature examining executive and upper management compensation has looked at a variety of factors. Within sport, coaches are equivalent to these positions, with one of the major factors determining total compensation being on-field performance. However, little is known on how expectations of on-field performance compared with actual performance affect compensation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of performance expectations on Division I–Football Bowl Subdivision head football coaches’ total compensation. Using data from 2006 to 2013, compensation increases when on-field performance expectations are exceeded. The impact of an additional on-field win relative to performance expectations is between 5.0 and 5.5% in terms of additional compensation. However, no statistically significant effect exists when comparing coaches at automatic qualifying versus nonautomatic qualifying schools. In addition, off-field measures of performance as well as individual and university characteristics affect total compensation.
Brian P. Soebbing, Pamela Wicker, and Nicholas M. Watanabe
Megan M. Gardner, Jeff T. Grimm, and Bradley T. Conner
Risk compensation theory stipulates that the addition of safety equipment intended to reduce injury or death, such as helmets and padding worn during sport participation, may actually be related to higher rates of adverse consequences ( Peltzman, 1975 ). The theory posits that individuals will
Simone Dohle, Brian Wansink, and Lorena Zehnder
The goal of this qualitative study is to identify common beliefs and behaviors related to exercise and diet.
Data were collected in focus group discussions with regular exercisers who were physically active between 1 and 5 h per week. Exercise objectives, beliefs and behaviors regarding food intake before, during, and after exercise, consumption of sport supplements, and dietary patterns on sedentary days were explored. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.
Participants reported that they reward themselves for being active by consuming food. Other exercisers had specific beliefs about dietary needs and how to compensate for exercise-induced losses along with exercise-related food likes and dislikes. The participants’ food intake also depended on their personal exercise objectives, such as the goal of performing well in competitions. External and physiological factors also played a role in determining participants’ dietary patterns.
Results of this study show that exercising and dietary patterns are closely intertwined. In addition, we articulate new hypotheses and outline a research agenda that can help improve how regular exercisers eat.
Thomas J. Sherriff, Kyle T. Ebersole, and David J. Cornell
Key Points ▸ Firefighters display a variety of movement compensations during an overhead squat. ▸ Restricted gastrocnemius muscle length is associated with the movement efficiency of firefighters. ▸ Interventions to lengthen gastrocnemius musculature should be utilized among these tactical athletes
Jennifer L. Gay and David M. Buchner
separate domains? If total PA is more stable, can this be explained by “compensation effects”? A compensation effect can occur, say, when interventions to increase the amount of time in one category of PA or seasonal changes, such as in construction or landscaping occupations, result in compensatory
David Barranco-Gil, Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lidia B. Alejo, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Eduardo Talavera, Susana Moral-González, and Alejandro Lucia
Various intensity thresholds have been proposed to differentiate the heavy from the severe intensity domain, that is, the transition from steady- to non-steady-state oxidative metabolism. Among these thresholds is the respiratory compensation point (RCP), which corresponds to the maximum exercise
Willis A. Jones and Wayne L. Black
different aspect of HBCU involvement in guarantee games, compensation equality. For years scholars have documented the many ways in which oppression and bias have resulted in unequal treatment for HBCUs ( Gasman & Tudico, 2008 ; Jones, 2010 ; Sav, 1997 ). Research from the sport management literature has
Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Daniel A. Keir, and Juan M. Murias
” is a key element in predicting performance and assessing training effectiveness. 1 Among the indices thought to reflect this important boundary are the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and the near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) break point ([HHb] BP ) of ramp
Régis Lobjois, Nicolas Benguigui, and Jean Bertsch
This study examined the effect of tennis playing on the coincidence timing (CT) of older adults. Young, younger-old and older-old (20–30, 60–69, and 70–79 years old, respectively) tennis players and nonplayers were asked to synchronize a simple response (pressing a button) with the arrival of a moving stimulus at a target. Results showed that the older tennis players responded with a slight bias similar to that of the young players. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the elimination of age effects through tennis playing was a result of maintaining basic perceptuomotor and perceptual processes or of some possible compensation strategy. The results revealed that the age-related increase in the visuomotor delay was significantly correlated with CT performance in older nonplayers but not in older tennis players. These results suggest that playing tennis is beneficial to older adults, insofar as they remained as accurate as younger ones despite less efficient perceptuomotor processes. This supports the compensation hypothesis.
Shaea A. Alkahtani, Nuala M. Byrne, Andrew P. Hills, and Neil A. King
Compensatory responses may attenuate the effectiveness of exercise training in weight management. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of moderate- and high-intensity interval training on eating behavior compensation.
Using a crossover design, 10 overweight and obese men participated in 4-week moderate (MIIT) and high (HIIT) intensity interval training. MIIT consisted of 5-min cycling stages at ±20% of mechanical work at 45%VO2peak, and HIIT consisted of alternate 30-s work at 90%VO2peak and 30-s rests, for 30 to 45 min. Assessments included a constant-load exercise test at 45%VO2peak for 45 min followed by 60-min recovery. Appetite sensations were measured during the exercise test using a Visual Analog Scale. Food preferences (liking and wanting) were assessed using a computer-based paradigm, and this paradigm uses 20 photographic food stimuli varying along two dimensions, fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or nonsweet). An ad libitum test meal was provided after the constant-load exercise test.
Exerciseinduced hunger and desire to eat decreased after HIIT, and the difference between MIIT and HIIT in desire to eat approached significance (p = .07). Exercise-induced liking for high-fat nonsweet food tended to increase after MIIT and decreased after HIIT (p = .09). Fat intake decreased by 16% after HIIT, and increased by 38% after MIIT, with the difference between MIIT and HIIT approaching significance (p = .07).
This study provides evidence that energy intake compensation differs between MIIT and HIIT.