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Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss and David T. Martin

This investigation describes the sprint performances of the highest internationally ranked professional male road sprint cyclist during the 2008–2011 Grand Tours. Sprint stages were classified as won, lost, or dropped from the front bunch before the sprint. Thirty-one stages were video-analyzed for average speed of the last km, sprint duration, position in the bunch, and number of teammates at 60, 30, and 15 s remaining. Race distance, total elevation gain (TEG), and average speed of 45 stages were determined. Head-to-head performances against the 2nd–5th most successful professional sprint cyclists were also reviewed. In the 52 Grand Tour sprint stages the subject started, he won 30 (58%), lost 15 (29%), was dropped in 6 (12%), and had 1 crash. Position in the bunch was closer to the front and the number of team members was significantly higher in won than in lost at 60, 30, and 15 s remaining (P < .05). The sprint duration was not different between won and lost (11.3 ± 1.7 and 10.4 ± 3.2 s). TEG was significantly higher in dropped (1089 ± 465 m) than in won and lost (574 ± 394 and 601 ± 423 m, P < .05). The ability to finish the race with the front bunch was lower (77%) than that of other successful sprinters (89%). However, the subject was highly successful, winning over 60% of contested stages, while his competitors won less than 15%. This investigation explores methodology that can be used to describe important aspects of road sprint cycling and supports the concept that tactical aspects of sprinting can relate to performance outcomes.

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Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

Biathlon is an Olympic winter sport that combines rifle shooting and cross-country skiing in various race formats. In the individual distance (15 km for women and 20 km for men), athletes compete over 5 laps of skiing with shooting between each 2 laps (ie, 4 shootings). The aim of the current study was to compare total race time differences, as well as the contribution from cross-country skiing and shooting variables to this difference, between biathletes of different performance levels and sexes in individual races in the Biathlon World Cup. Based on the publicly available race reports, the authors compared these factors between top-10 results (G1–10) and results within rank 21–30 (G21–30), as well as the corresponding sex differences. G21–30 among men/women were on average 4%/6% behind G1–10 in total race time, in which course time accounted for 42%/54% of the overall performance difference, followed by 53%/44% explained by penalty time caused by shooting performance (ie, the number of hits). The remaining 2–3% was explained by differences in shooting time and range time. Women G1–10 were on average 15% slower in skiing speed than men G1–10, which accounted for 92% of the overall performance difference between sexes. In total, among G1–10, men shot on average 15 s faster than women, and total penalty time was 18 s shorter. In conclusion, course time and penalty time contributed approximately equally to the performance-level differences, whereas course time explained above 90% of the sex differences in individual World Cup biathlon races.

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Shona L. Halson, Alan G. Hahn and Aaron J. Coutts

high reliability but low ecological validity, while field assessments may have lower reliability but strong ecological validity. With the advent of wearable technologies, markerless motion-analysis systems, and sophisticated competition-analysis tools, there has been a rapid expansion of the ability to

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Michael Mondello, Brian M. Mills and Scott Tainsky

of the firm in sporting competition and in market competition . The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 78 , 1 – 14 . doi:10.2307/1880543 10.2307/1880543 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development . ( 2013 ). The role and measurement of quality in competition analysis . OECD Policy

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Jim Mckay and Donna O’Connor

possession trends were limited to the Super Rugby competition, analysis of Rugby World Cup data provided by the International Rugby Board ( 2011 , 2015 ) was conducted. Analysis revealed an increase in unstructured possessions over the 20-year period (see Table  2 ) reinforcing the importance of this aspect

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Ludovic Seifert

between 50 and 55 cycles/min ( Potdevin et al., 2006 ). Moreover, competition analysis showed that stroke frequency can really vary within and between laps ( Hellard et al., 2008 ; Simbaña Escobar, Hellard, Pyne, & Seifert, 2018 ), inviting us to consider and manipulate speed and stroke frequency, as

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Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sebastián Feu

de primera división de la temporada 2003–2004 [The competition analysis as an instrument for the decision making of the coaches: A study of the Spanish league of professional soccer of the first division of the 2003–2004 season] 2005 UEM 19 Gutiérrez Cuenca, Luís Pedro La formación en la práctica de