This study examined the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, coping strategies during a sport competition, and sport achievement. A prospective design was used in which 80 athletes from individual sports completed measures of perceived coaching behaviors two days before a competition (Time 1) and measures of coping and sport achievement within three hours after a sport competition (Time 2). As expected, results of multiple regressions indicated that supportive coaching was a positive predictor of task-oriented coping and sport achievement whereas unsupportive coaching was a positive predictor of disengagement-oriented coping. Both types of coping were significantly associated with sport achievement. Task-oriented coping was a significant partial mediator in the relation between supportive coaching and sport achievement. This study, which contributes to both the coaching and coping literatures, highlights the role of supportive coaching behaviors in the initiation of effective stress management during sport competitions.
Michel Nicolas, Patrick Gaudreau and Véronique Franche
Stefan Koehn, Tony Morris and Anthony P. Watt
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an imagery intervention for enhancing the experience of flow state and performance in junior athletes. On the basis of previous results, a tailored imagery script was developed to target critical flow dimensions, namely challenge-skills balance, clear goals, concentration on the task, and sense of control. It was hypothesized that the use of cognitive and motivational imagery would increase specific flow dimensions, which, in turn, would enhance flow state and competition performance. Participants in a single-case, multiple baseline A-B design study were four nationally ranked athletes. Following a 6-week baseline phase monitoring flow state and performance and a 6-week intervention phase using relaxation in conjunction with imagery techniques, three participants showed a sustained increase in flow experiences, and all four participants improved their service performance, groundstroke performance, and ranking-list position.
Peter Gröpel and Jürgen Beckmann
Researchers suggests that a pre-performance routine (PPR) can improve performance in competitions. The effectiveness of left-hand contractions, a PPR to trigger facilitative cortical processes for skilled motor performance, was tested in two studies. In Study 1, gymnasts competing at the German university championships in artistic gymnastics performed their routines with or without the PPR. In Study 2, gymnasts performed the balance beam exercise either using the PPR or the control task (right-hand contractions) under simulated competition pressure. The qualification performance (Study 1) and the pressure-free performance (Study 2) were controlled. In both studies, participants in the PPR group performed better than control participants. The results indicate that left-hand contractions may be a useful PPR in the field.
Lisa Dawn Hamilton, Sari M. van Anders, David N. Cox and Neil V. Watson
The association between androgens and competition in women has been understudied compared with men. The current study examined the link between testosterone (T) and competition in elite female athletes, using a sample of female wrestlers that included athletes competing at both the national and international level. In a repeated-measures design, saliva samples were collected before and after wrestling bouts, with comparable samples of wins and losses, and subsequently analyzed for T. Study results showed a 22% increase in circulating bioavailable T from pre-to postbout, F(1, 12) = 9.71, P = .009. There was no significant difference in T between win or loss outcomes. These findings—showing a link between individual head-to-head competition and T in women—demonstrate that women’s androgenic responses to environmental contexts are dynamic and may be an important factor to address in research on competitive performance.
Iñigo Mujika, Luis Villanueva, Marijke Welvaert and David B. Pyne
The Olympic Games, taking place every 4 years, and FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) World Championships, which are held in pre- and post-Olympic years, are the 2 preeminent international swimming competitions. Qualifying for these events usually requires that swimmers achieve a fitness
Gregory Shaw and Iñigo Mujika
physique could be expected. More recently, others have reported on the characteristics of elite OW swimmers during training camps and competition settings. 2 – 5 Swimmers described by Van Heest et al 2 were younger, with similar body mass and height, than those described by Carter and Ackland. 1 Women
Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova
Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold
Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Jean-Philippe Hager and Christopher Carling
To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men’s rugby union matches.
A semiautomatic computerized time–motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles.
A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50–55 and 60–65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES –0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3–0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES –0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear.
This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.
Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller
Elite athletes are exposed to a high level of both physiological and psychological stress leading up to and on the day of competition and therefore look to utilize a range of different strategies to gain and maintain a competitive edge. 1 One strategy that elite athletes use to counteract sleep
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang
(NA—awful, crummy, and discouraged), tranquility (TR—calm, relaxed, and peaceful), and FA (fatigued, tired, and worn out). Participation in structured physical activity sessions (such as a structured exercise program) can enhance PA and minimize NA ( Driver & Lox, 2007 ). Sport competition represents