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Michelle Hayes, Kevin Filo, Caroline Riot and Andrea Geurin

continue to scrutinize athletes’ time spent on social media during major sport events, with some suggesting that social media use could be affecting athlete performance and calling for social media bans during competitions ( Fynes-Clinton, 2012 ). Others have suggested that athletes replicate their daily

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

dietary choices, as nutrition is an essential component of athletic performance and recovery. Appropriate energy and nutrient intake supports optimal body function in training and competition ( Beelen et al., 2010 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ). Exercise may stress some of the body’s metabolic pathways

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

differently. 3 While the taper period is designed to reduce training stress and promote recovery, performance in athletic competition has been shown to induce a psychophysiological stress response irrespective of the reduction in training load (TL). Given the sensitivity of immune function to physiological

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Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson

The sport of ice hockey is characterized by athletes repeatedly performing high-intensity, short-duration efforts while maintaining highly complex movements over the course of a 60-minute competition. For optimal performance, ice hockey athletes need to have well-rounded physical and physiological

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Benita J. Lalor, Shona L. Halson, Jacqueline Tran, Justin G. Kemp and Stuart J. Cormack

optimizing recovery in team-sport athletes. Although the exact role of sleep in the recovery in team-sport athletes has been questioned, 2 developing an understanding of both habitual and competition sleep characteristics of AF players may influence recovery practices. Shift-work patterns typified by

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

). During competitions, performance is directly related to the mechanical aspects of the chair (mass, mass distribution, wheel features/tires, and alignment), chair maintenance, chair–user interface, and athlete characteristics ( Goosey-Tolfrey, 2010 ; Laferrier et al., 2012 ; Paulson & Goosey

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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

Seasonal environmental changes can create unique challenges for year-long training among track-and-field athletes. However, the competitive track-and-field season is held in the summer months of the northern hemisphere and major international track-and-field competitions, such as the World

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

performance in connection with sport competitions of varying duration is called for. In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world-record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. Furthermore, we discuss how physiological factors

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

Cross-country sprint skiing competitions involve four very high-intensity efforts of 2–4 min, performed over 3–4 hr, commencing with a qualification heat completed as an individual time trial and followed by three subsequent head-to-head heats separated by ∼20–25 min ( Sandbakk et al., 2011

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Barry S. Mason, Viola C. Altmann and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Paralympic sports, a classification system exists in order to minimize the impact of impairment on the outcomes of competition. 2 Classification in WR is largely dependent on the physical assessment of trunk and arm function. Point scores between 0 and 1.5 are awarded to represent trunk function. Both arms