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Tyreal Yizhou Qian, Jerred Junqi Wang and James Jianhui Zhang

Shifting from a player-oriented approach, e-sports has increasingly positioned itself as emerging spectator entertainment. In the wake of the growing online viewer market, the industry has made tremendous efforts to innovate marketing strategies and build up a base of passionate fans across the globe. To augment this endeavor, the current study investigated push and pull factors that influence e-sports online viewers’ consumption behaviors (N = 1,309) using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The authors proposed a new way to operationalize push and pull factors that have been relatively overlooked in the literature. The findings indicated that, while push and pull factors had different effects on e-sports consumption behaviors, they should be considered equally important in e-sports livestreaming. The study expanded our understanding of the attractiveness and desirability of e-sports and shed some critical light on management and marketing issues within and beyond the e-sports space.

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J. Dickinson, T. Sebastien and L. Taylor

Children in the age range 8 to 13 years (72 males and 53 females), completed a game preference questionnaire and participated in a novel competitive game task, both the questionnaire and method of approach to the game could be evaluated in order to classify subjects as potents, fortunists, strategists, or potent-strategists in terms of competitive style. Predictions were made on the basis of studies within and between cultures concerning gender differences in competitive style. Based on evidence from within the North American culture, predictions were made concerning game preference and age differences. The results supported the predictions in terms of gender differences. Changes in game preference with age and gender, and age differences in competitive-style also conformed with predictions. It is considered that the novel competitive game task might make a useful instrument for evaluating competitive style.

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Connie L. Blakemore, H. Gill Hilton, Joyce M. Harrison, Tracy L. Pellett and James Gresh

Mastery learning is an instructional strategy that embraces the philosophy that almost any student can learn what is being taught given sufficient time and help. Through Bloom’s group-based, teacher-paced model, 71 seventh-grade boys were taught basketball skills. Students in two treatment groups (mastery and nonmastery) and a control group were compared on the performance of psychomotor skills in isolation and in a competitive game situation before, midway through, and following their training. Students in the mastery group were not taught new skills until 80% had mastered the present skills. The mastery group performed significantly better on isolated skills than did the nonmastery and control groups. There was no significant difference between groups in the performance of skills in a competitive game situation.

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Geraldine Naughton and John Carlson

The heart rate intensity during 20 minutes of sports participation by circumpubertal children was monitored several times over a season. The competitive games’ mean absolute heart rates for basketball, badminton, netball, and tennis were 170, 159, 168, and 162 bts·min−1 (or 72, 75, 69, and 67% of heart rate maximum), respectively. The mean abolute heart rates for 20 minutes of participation under practice conditions for badminton, basketball, netball, and tennis were 149, 157, 144, and 135 bts·min−1, or 73, 75, 69, and 67% of heart rate maximum. At the 0.05 level of probability there was a significant difference between the heart rate intensities under competitive game and practice situations in the badminton, netball, and tennis groups. The difference between intensities of competitive games and practices was nonsignificant in the basketball players. The study concluded that participation in practice and game conditions was positive in providing the potential for a training stimulus.

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Tara K. Scanlan and MichaeI W. Passer

This field study examined the intrapersonal and situational factors related to the stress experienced by 10- to 12-year-old girls participating in competitive youth soccer. Factors potentially related to competitive stress were assessed at preseason, midseason, pregame, and postgame periods. Competitive stress, measured by the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children, was assessed 30 min. prior to and immediately following a competitive game. Results indicated that higher pregame stress was related to high competitive trait anxiety and basal state anxiety as well as low self-esteem and team performance expectancies. The situational factor of game outcome (win, tie, loss) was the predominant variable associated with stress exhibited after the game, with losers evidencing the highest and winners the lowest postgame stress. The most important intrapersonal factor related to postgame stress was the amount of fun experienced during the game. The findings were quite similar to previous field research with young male soccer players, indicating that both sexes seem to share common sources of stress.

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Laura S. Kox, P. Paul F.M. Kuijer, Dagmar A.J. Thijssen, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Rick R. van Rijn, Monique H.W. Frings-Dresen and Mario Maas

.6); 10.9–12.1 LLT: 11.3 (0.7); 10.5–11.9 Volleyball – HLT: 6–8 a LLT: 3–5 a ≥1.5 a 1 competitive game per week BMC BMC adjusted for FSH, height and weight Moderate Chang et al 29 (1995), China CS 324 (187 F, 137 M) 261 (143 F, 118 M) 63 (44 F, 19 M) 10–19 a Chinese opera actors and traditional

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Patricia Kelshaw, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell and Shane V. Caswell

. Preceding each game, a trained member of the research team powered on and then adhered a GFT sensor to the participant’s lacrosse helmet. The participants then partook in their competitive game. Following the end of the game, the GFT sensors were powered off, removed from the helmets, and stored for later

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Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka and Haithem Rebai

practice soccer 11 months a year, for at least 3 years at a rate of 4 sessions with 1 competitive game per week, in addition to their school physical education. In general, soccer training sessions lasted approximately 1 hour 30 minutes, including about 15–20 minutes of warming up, low-intensity games, and

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Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith and Ralph-Christopher Bayer

subjects initially competed in a noncompetitive (piece-rate) game, which familiarized them with the experiment’s characteristics and provided a benchmark for the competitive (share-prize) game that followed. The competitive game was subsequently played in groups of three over three periods. Athletic

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Melinda A. Solmon

. Although the content for the curriculum was sport-based, unlike the multiactivity model that consisted of short units and focused on competitive game play, this model required longer units that allowed students to develop skills and incorporated elements of cooperation and student responsibility. More