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Davide Ferioli, Ermanno Rampinini, Andrea Bosio, Antonio La Torre and Nicola A. Maffiuletti

players (division I vs division II) appeared to be characterized by a similar COD ability. 8 , 9 However, some limitations of these previous studies should be acknowledged, such as the limited number of players involved and only 2 competitive level groups compared in each study. For these reasons, a

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

preparation period, given there were trivial to small improvements in CMJ variables, regardless of the competitive levels. Peripheral fatigue induced by a COD test was moderately reduced, suggesting that the ability to sustain repeated CODs was improved. The negative relationships found between sRPE-TL and TV

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Eric M. Martin, Martha E. Ewing and Daniel Gould

Significant social agents are thought to play a vital role in youth development (Brustad, Babkes, & Smith, 2001). The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) commissioned a nationwide survey to examine the effect significant social agents had on youth sport behavior. In Phase I, initial data were collected and results were published in the Journal of Coaching Education (2011). The results of the previous analyses were largely descriptive, and further analyses were desired. Therefore, the current study (Phase II) is a secondary but more in-depth data analysis of the initial data collected by the USADA. Phase II analyses (n = 3379, Mage = 12.23, SD = 2.78) revealed that youth sport coaches have the greatest positive influence on youth followed closely by parents, but all of the significant social agents, to different extents, were seen as more positive than negative by youth. Results varied by developmental level, gender, and competitive level. Results, limitations, and practical implications are discussed.

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Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas and Guillaume Martinent

demands can potentially accumulate and lead to a sense of increased pressure across the season. BRSQ and Demographic Effects Demographic variables are frequently studied as covariates to inspect their effects on the different types of motivation. In a sport setting, sex, competitive level, and sport types

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Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling

more competitive levels of sport women’s representation in coaching positions is low. For example, across 54 national teams in the Canadian sport system, women comprise only 16% of head coach and 18% of assistant coach positions ( Sport Canada, 2016 ). At the university level, women head coaches made

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Rosa M. Rodriguez, Ashley Marroquin and Nicole Cosby

surgery is effective at repairing the ruptured ligament and restoring ligamentous function, for the most part, the percentage of athletes that return to a competitive level of physical activity is only 44%. 4 Of these, 44% report not returning to preinjury activity and 24% report that the main factor

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Amanda Visek and Jack Watson

The purpose of this investigation was to examine male ice hockey players’ (N = 85) perceived legitimacy of aggression and professionalization of attitudes across developmental age and competitive level. Findings were analyzed within the complementary conceptual frameworks of social learning theory, professionalization of attitudes, and moral reasoning. Ice hockey players completed a modified, sport-specific version of the Sport Behavior Inventory and a modified version of the Context Modified Webb scale. Results of the investigation revealed that as players increased in age and competitive level, perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior increased, and their attitudes about sport became increasingly professionalized. Based on the conceptual framework in which the results are interpreted, intervention services by sport psychology practitioners are explored that are aimed at the athlete, the organization, and influential others.

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Jennifer Cumming and Craig Hall

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of competitive level on athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season and to examine whether their use of imagery was related to their physical and technical preparation. A total of 324 athletes completed a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) that was designed to reflect an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season. MANOVAs indicated that competitive level differences existed in athletes’ use of imagery in the offseason as well as in their use of physical and technical preparation for the upcoming season. More specifically, provincial and national level athletes engaged in significantly more imagery, regardless of the function, and physical and technical preparation than regional level athletes. In addition, bivariate correlations indicated that the more physical and technical preparation athletes engage in during the off-season, the more imagery they use.

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Nicole M. LaVoi

Research pertaining to female coaches at the professional, intercollegiate, and interscholastic levels exists, but attention to females in positions of power in youth sport is limited. Given youth sport is an important social institution that affects millions of children and their families, it provides a rich opportunity for creating social change and challenging stereotypical beliefs pertaining to gender and leadership. This study uses the theoretical framework of occupational sex-segregation—specifically tokenism and marginalization (Kanter, 1977a, 1977b)—to examine the representation of females in positions of power (N = 5,683; Head Coaches, Assistant Coaches, Team Managers) within one Midwestern youth soccer association. Based on the data, female coaches are considered “tokens” within all boys’ teams and at the highest competitive level of girls’ teams, and are marginalized and underrepresented in all positions of power at almost all age groups and competitive levels. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

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Federico Y. Fontana, Alessandro Colosio, Gabriela F. De Roia, Giorgio Da Lozzo and Silvia Pogliaghi

Anthropometric evaluation of athletes is necessary to optimize talent identification and player development.


To provide a specific anthropometric reference database of senior male rugby players competing at different levels in the southern European region.




In 362 professional players (25 ± 4 y; 138 Italian national team, 97 first-division, and 127 second-division national championships) the authors measured mass, stature, and percentage body fat (plicometry). Mean, SD, and coefficient of variation were calculated for forwards and backs and for positional subgroups. Binomial logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic curve were performed to assess which variables best predicted level assignment (international vs national level).


For all competitive levels forwards were significantly heavier and taller and had a larger percentage body fat and fat-free mass than backs. The lower the competitive level, the higher the within-role variability observed; furthermore, players in a specific positional subgroup were lighter, shorter, and fatter and had less fat-free mass. Fat-free mass is the variable that best predicts the likelihood of being classified as an international or national player (cutoff value 79.54 kg).


The data confirm the specificity in the physical requirements of rugby in individual playing positions at all competitive levels and document significant differences among elite and 1st- and 2nd-division players in the same positional role. These differences may reflect the variable technical abilities, selection, training practices, and requirements of the game among these categories.