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Gidon Jakar and Stephanie Gerretsen

, largely for personal gains such as fandom or the prestige of owning a club; some owners may also pursue financial and competitive success ( Brower, 1977 ). Sloane’s ( 1971 ) seminal paper was the first to address ownership characteristics in English soccer clubs within the context of firm characteristics

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Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann, and Tanja Legenbauer

Eating Disturbances Among Athletes In the last decade, the relationship between competitive sports and eating disturbances among athletes has gained increasing interest and several studies were initiated that investigated prevalence rates of eating disorders in athletes as well as associations

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin, and Britton W. Brewer

.g., Gould, Hodge, Peterson, & Giannini, 1989 ) and the effects of self-talk interventions on competitive performance ( Hatzigeorgiadis, Galanis, Zourbanos, & Theodorakis, 2014 ; Weinberg, Miller, & Horn, 2012 ). Some investigations have explored self-talk during competition, but these studies have focused

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James E. Johnson, Chrysostomos Giannoulakis, and Beau F. Scott

( Wong, 1994 ). Among the most important functions of state associations is to ensure that participants are provided with fair and equal opportunities during competition ( Blackburn, Forsyth, Olson, & Whitehead, 2013 ). This concept, known as competitive balance, constitutes a complex and controversial

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Eve Bernstein

exposed to certain physical activities ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013 ). While several activities can be offered in physical education classes, competitive activities and sport encompass many of the activities that students experience. How these competitive activities and sport are

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Christian A. Clermont, Sean T. Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, and Reed Ferber

associated with running performance, and one of the main kinematic differences associated with better running economy is a less extended leg at toe-off via less plantarflexion and/or less knee extension. 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 However, research on kinematic differences between competitive and recreational

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Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon, and James E.J. Murphy

endurance athletes can have negative effects at the cellular level ( Collins et al., 2003 ). Accordingly, the hypothesis of this study was that TL is positively correlated with physiological parameters key to athletic performance and as such competitive triathlon training would preserve TL over regular

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

, different behavior of the opponent has been shown to invite different pacing responses. 5 However, apart from the opponents as most obvious affordances in competition, many other external cues will be presented simultaneously to an exerciser in real-life competitive situations. Therefore, it seems likely

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Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham, and Yin-Leng Theng

, 2019 ) has shown that people in group play have superior adherence to people who primarily play alone. Nevertheless, to date, little is known about how different types of social interaction in exergames could promote exercise motivation among older adults. Further, exergames involving competitive

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J. Dickinson, T. Sebastien, and L. Taylor

Children in the age range 8 to 13 years (72 males and 53 females), completed a game preference questionnaire and participated in a novel competitive game task, both the questionnaire and method of approach to the game could be evaluated in order to classify subjects as potents, fortunists, strategists, or potent-strategists in terms of competitive style. Predictions were made on the basis of studies within and between cultures concerning gender differences in competitive style. Based on evidence from within the North American culture, predictions were made concerning game preference and age differences. The results supported the predictions in terms of gender differences. Changes in game preference with age and gender, and age differences in competitive-style also conformed with predictions. It is considered that the novel competitive game task might make a useful instrument for evaluating competitive style.