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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang and Ing-Shiou Hwang

One of the manifestations of aging is that a given function loses its specialization and becomes simplified, known as age-related loss of complexity ( Baltes & Lindenberger, 1997 ). Numerous studies have demonstrated age-related reduction in complexity in the cardiovascular ( Bartzokis, 2004

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Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner

nature of sport is also observed and felt on personal levels for many other reasons not attributed to money. As a result of this multi-billion dollar industry and its commodification, there are ensuing complexities and capitalistic directives that correspond with issues and challenges in sport. Mangan

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Yumeng Li, Melissa A. Mache and Teri A. Todd

physiological complexity. 18 Multiscale entropy is a nonlinear analysis tool to quantify complexity or irregularity of a time-series signal over multiple time scales. Compared with approximate entropy and sample entropy, multiscale entropy quantifies the overall complexity of a system and allows researchers to

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Marcel Mutsaarts, Bert Steenbergen and Harold Bekkering

Anticipatory planning was examined in detail for a complex object manipulation task by capitalizing on both the complexity and the number of elements in the movement sequences in seven individuals with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (HCP) and seven left-handed control participants. Participants had to grasp a hexagonal knob using one of five possible grasping patterns as quicklly as possible following a starting cue (condition I), and sometimes, they had to rotate it subsequently either 60˚ or 120˚ clockwise or counterclockwise (condition II). In the first condition, the HCP participants appear to anticipate the comfort of the different grasping patterns before movement onset, as controls did. However, when the task consisted of more than one movement part, HCP participants did not complete their planning processes before movement onset, which was contrary to controls. Instead, the results suggest that they use a step-by-step planning strategy, that is, they planned the latter parts of a movement sequence as the movement unfolds. The results are discussed in the light of possible capacity limitations of an internal model for grip selection, and a recent model on the planning and on-line control of movement performance.

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Fatemeh Azadinia, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Mojtaba Kamyab, Morteza Asgari and Mohamad Parnianpour

). Noise and complexity in human postural control: Interpreting the different estimations of entropy . PLoS ONE, 6 ( 3 ), e17696 . PubMed ID: 21437281 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017696 Roerdink , M. , De Haart , M. , Daffertshofer , A. , Donker , S. , Geurts , A. , & Beek , P. ( 2006

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Marlene A. Dixon and Per G. Svensson

resources and support to develop their vision. Throughout its start-up phase, this organization faced increased institutional complexity as they grappled with a series of incompatible prescriptions and demands from multiple institutional logics, consistent with other research in this area ( Greenwood

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Anne Sofie B. Malling, Bo M. Morberg, Lene Wermuth, Ole Gredal, Per Bech and Bente R. Jensen

, Bode, & Wermuth, 2014 ; Uhrbrand, Stenager, Pedersen, & Dalgas, 2015 ). Physical rehabilitation for persons with PD is therefore important to minimize motor deficits due to disease progression. The complexity of a motor task may be defined by the number of task components and the connections between

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Nicholas Stergiou, Jenny A. Kent and Denise McGrath

An optimal level of variability enables us to interact adaptively and safely to a continuously changing environment, where often our movements must be adjusted in a matter of milliseconds. A large body of research exists that demonstrates natural variability in healthy gait (along with variability in other, healthy biological signals such as heart rate) and a loss of this variability in aging and injury, as well as in a variety of neurodegenerative and physiological disorders. We submit that this field of research is now in pressing need of an innovative “next step” that goes beyond the many descriptive studies that characterize levels of variability in various patient populations. We need to devise novel therapies that will harness the existing knowledge on biological variability and create new possibilities for those in the grip of disease. We also propose that the nature of the specific physiological limitation present in the neuromuscular apparatus may be less important in the physiological complexity framework than the control mechanisms adopted by the older individual in the coordination of the available degrees of freedom. The theoretical underpinnings of this framework suggest that interventions designed to restore healthy system dynamics may optimize functional improvements in older adults. We submit that interventions based on the restoration of optimal variability and movement complexity could potentially be applied across a range of diseases or dysfunctions as it addresses the adaptability and coordination of available degrees of freedom, regardless of the internal constraints of the individual.

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Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski

acknowledge the complexity of exercise behavior. Based on the study findings, the following implications for physical activity promoters (practitioners) are recommended whenever applicable: (a) although exercise training is typically linked to physical effort and mobility, individual variations need to be

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Damon Burton

This investigation evaluated the impact of goal specificity and task complexity on basketball skill development. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) specific goals promote greater skill improvement than general goals; (b) goal setting effects are significantly greater for simple than for complex tasks. Students in a basketball class were matched on pretest skill and assigned to either specific or general goal setting groups. During each of 15 class periods of the 8-week course, students were assigned specific or general goals for each fundamental basketball skill in a 7-station circuit. Results partially confirmed both hypotheses. Profile analyses revealed that specific-goal subjects significantly outperformed, general-goal classmates on defensive footwork and ball handling drills whereas dribbling drills approached significance. Task complexity results suggested that subjects setting specific goals performed significantly better than those setting general goals on low but not on high complexity tasks, whereas results for moderate task complexity were mixed.