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Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner

nature of sport is also observed and felt on personal levels for many other reasons not attributed to money. As a result of this multi-billion dollar industry and its commodification, there are ensuing complexities and capitalistic directives that correspond with issues and challenges in sport. Mangan

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Marlene A. Dixon and Per G. Svensson

resources and support to develop their vision. Throughout its start-up phase, this organization faced increased institutional complexity as they grappled with a series of incompatible prescriptions and demands from multiple institutional logics, consistent with other research in this area ( Greenwood

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Nicholas Stergiou, Jenny A. Kent and Denise McGrath

An optimal level of variability enables us to interact adaptively and safely to a continuously changing environment, where often our movements must be adjusted in a matter of milliseconds. A large body of research exists that demonstrates natural variability in healthy gait (along with variability in other, healthy biological signals such as heart rate) and a loss of this variability in aging and injury, as well as in a variety of neurodegenerative and physiological disorders. We submit that this field of research is now in pressing need of an innovative “next step” that goes beyond the many descriptive studies that characterize levels of variability in various patient populations. We need to devise novel therapies that will harness the existing knowledge on biological variability and create new possibilities for those in the grip of disease. We also propose that the nature of the specific physiological limitation present in the neuromuscular apparatus may be less important in the physiological complexity framework than the control mechanisms adopted by the older individual in the coordination of the available degrees of freedom. The theoretical underpinnings of this framework suggest that interventions designed to restore healthy system dynamics may optimize functional improvements in older adults. We submit that interventions based on the restoration of optimal variability and movement complexity could potentially be applied across a range of diseases or dysfunctions as it addresses the adaptability and coordination of available degrees of freedom, regardless of the internal constraints of the individual.

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Robert Sparks

Although it is apparent that conceptual reconciliation between the critical frameworks of sport and leisure studies would enable more strategic and innovative work, this paper argues that the complexity of this undertaking should not be underestimated. Several shortcomings in Deem’s analysis of theoretical integration are traced out, and a basis is struck for critically analyzing work in leisure and sports studies generally. Finally, Deem’s conception of “radical pluralism” is reviewed and a way of proceeding is proposed.

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Jennifer J. Heisz and Ana Kovacevic

Age-related changes in the brain can compromise cognitive function. However, in some cases, the brain is able to functionally reorganize to compensate for some of this loss. The present paper reviews the benefits of exercise on executive functions in older adults and discusses a potential mechanism through which exercise may change the way the brain processes information for better cognitive outcomes. Specifically, older adults who are more physically active demonstrate a shift toward local neural processing that is associated with better executive functions. We discuss the use of neural complexity as a sensitive measure of the neural network plasticity that is enhanced through exercise. We conclude by highlighting the future work needed to improve exercise prescriptions that help older adults maintain their cognitive and physical functions for longer into their lifespan.

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R. Glenn Cummins, Norman E. Youngblood and Mike Milford

Sport telecasts are frequently the showcase and testing ground for innovative broadcast technologies. One particularly novel example is ESPN’s coverage of college athletics via its multiscreen, or mosaic, format. This experiment tested the impact of its visual complexity by comparing the response of fans high and low in team identification to this format versus a traditional presentation of dull and exciting game play. For highly identified spectators, this format was a detriment to their appreciation of game play, whereas the format had little impact for viewers with low levels of team identification. Moreover, independent of degree of team identification, viewers reported a more negative evaluation of this technique than of a traditional broadcast, and results were consistent regardless of the dull or exciting nature of game play.

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David R. Mutimer and Brian T.P. Mutimer

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Steve Swanson and Aubrey Kent

The way in which leaders in sport organizations are evaluated by their employees is dependent upon perceived levels of credibility and implicit theories of leadership. Leader knowledge and expertise play significant roles in this process, yet both have been treated as comprehensive constructs irrespective of specific knowledge domains. Drawing from the education literature, this research looks to disentangle the global perspective used by the credibility and prototypicality literatures. It is proposed that employees in sport organizations expect managers to possess domain-specific expertise which is separate from the functional area requirement. Two different samples including professional sport employees and sport management students were used, with confirmatory factor and conjoint analyses used to test the research hypotheses. The results support the notion that distinct psychological processes exist within sport organizations, and that sport domain knowledge and expertise are distinct constructs which play important roles in the perception of leaders within this context.

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Nikolaus A. Dean

illustrate some of the social complexities of SRC, but also hope to provide a “voice” to the lived experience of SRC ( Ellis, 2009 ). Autoethnography can be understood as a method that draws upon personal stories of and about the self, told through a lens of culture ( Adams, Holman-Jones, & Ellis, 2014

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

constructed through the synergy of complexity, formalization, and centralization ( Slack & Parent, 2006 ). Presented through three paths, complexity focuses on how organizations are separated into various departments. First, horizontal differentiation can influence complexity through the creation and