categories of courses. CSPAP indicates comprehensive school physical activity program. Separate Courses Related to CSPAP Beyond the physical education component in the CSPAP model, 99 programs (68.8%) indicated that they did not have any separate courses for other components of CSPAP (see Figure 2 ). With
Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela H. Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Audrey Amrein-Beardsley and Mirka Koro-Ljungberg
Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
). Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) has been adopted as the national framework in the USA ( CDC, 2015 ). This study was part of a larger program of research investigating a CSPAP ( CDC, 2013 ) change effort in one rural school district. Previous analyses from this research program indicate
Collin A. Webster, Danielle Nesbitt, Heesu Lee and Cate Egan
The purpose of this study was to examine preservice physical education teachers’ (PPET) service learning experiences planning and implementing course assignments aligned with comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) recommendations.
Based on service learning principles, PPETs (N = 18) enrolled in a physical education methods class planned, implemented, and reflected on physical activity promotion events before, during, and after school for youth, staff, and parents. Data sources included focus group interviews, written reflections, field notes, and artifacts. Constant comparison techniques and triangulation guided data analysis and interpretation to identify overarching themes describing the PPETs’ successes, challenges, and lessons learned.
Four themes were identified: (a) outcomes with youth, parents, and staff, (b) communication, (c) planning and preparation, and (d) priorities and possibilities.
This study provides insight into the feasibility and outcomes of CSPAP-related service learning for PPETs, and uncovers promising aspects as well as potential issues with CSPAP implementation.
Sarah A. Doolittle and Paul B. Rukavina
This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson’s propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to determine their applicability in urban schools. Data include semistructured interviews, multiple observations, and artifacts collected over two academic years. Triangulation, peer debriefing, and interpretative and member checks were used for trustworthiness. Findings indicate that most aspects of both theories were evident in the program, though goals exceeded those of CSPAP as stated, and Lawson’s concept of “community” was limited. Major themes related to establishing this CSPAP are described, including practical strategies for budget, scheduling and staffing, and qualities of leadership. Stakeholders reported that they valued the program not for student wellness, but for personal, social and academic well being, as well as for contributions to the school culture.
Erin E. Centeio, Nate McCaughtry, Lila Gutuskey, Alex C. Garn, Cheryl Somers, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin and Noel L. Kulik
The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children’s, educators’, and parents’ physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a CSPAP in 20 urban elementary schools, with six randomized for research. In-school PA was measured prepost for all fourth grade students using accelerometers. Parent and educator PA was self-reported using the IPAQ. RM-ANOVAs revealed significant prepost increases in minutes of student MVPA (P < .001). Parents significantly increased PA (P < .01) and although educators’ reported change in PA, it was not statistically significant (P = .50). This study provides unique information about the potential influence of one CSPAP on students’ overall PA, PA by individual context within the school, the differential PA patterns by race, and PA changes for educators and parents.
Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin and Darla M. Castelli
As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the implementation of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program at the elementary level. Using a collective case study design, interviews, observations, field notes, open-ended survey questions, and an online forum monitoring guided the interpretation of teacher perceptions and development of emergent themes. Qualitative data analysis was conducted for each individual teacher and then across the ten teachers which produced four major themes: (a) Leading the Charge: Ready, Set, Go!, (b) Adoption versus Adaptation: Implementation Varies, (c) Social Media’s Place in the Professional Development (PD) Community, and (d) Keys to Successful Implementation. It can be concluded that, based on these findings, elementary physical education teachers are ready and willing to implement CSPAP. Key factors that may influence this implementation are discussed.
Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau and James C. Hannon
Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming (CSPAP) has the potential to increase physical activity (PA) in children over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSPAP on school day step counts in children.
Participants were 327 fourth and fifth grade children recruited from 4 elementary schools. The study was conducted within an Interrupted Time-Series Design framework. School day step counts were collected for 5 days across preintervention and postintervention time-points (10 days total) using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. Robust piecewise regression examined pre- and postintervention intercepts and slopes, and the change in these parameters using postestimation statistics.
The slope coefficient was statistically significant across preintervention (β = –105.23, P < .001) but not postintervention time-points (β = –63.23, P = .347), suggesting decreases in steps counts across preintervention and stability of step counts across postintervention school days. Postestimation statistics yielded increases in school day step counts from the end of preintervention (day 5) to the start of postintervention (day 6; t(319) = –4.72, P < .001, Cohen’s d = 4.72).
The CSPAP intervention increased average school day step counts and attenuated decreases in step counts throughout the school week in children.
Timothy A. Brusseau, Sean M. Bulger, Eloise Elliott, James C. Hannon and Emily Jones
This paper discusses lessons learned from the process of conducting community-based research with a focus on issues and topics of potential importance to leaders of departments of kinesiology. This paper is written from the perspective of physical education teacher education faculty implementing comprehensive school physical activity programming. Specifically, the paper focuses on the intersection of physical education and public health, the reconceptualization of training physical education teachers, related opportunities for community-engaged learning, and the process of relationship building in schools and communities. It is the authors’ intent that this paper will stimulate discussions relative to these topics among leaders of and faculty within kinesiology departments.
Emily M. Jones, Andrea R. Taliaferro, Eloise M. Elliott, Sean M. Bulger, Alfgeir L. Kristjansson, William Neal and Ishonté Allar
Increasing rates of childhood obesity has prompted calls for comprehensive approaches to school-based physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) development and related contextual issues within a rural Appalachian county using a Systems Approach. A multicomponent needs assessment was conducted, including 11 school site visits with interviews with school personnel, physical space audits, and self-reported professional development, curricular, and equipment/resource needs. Data were summarized into case narratives describing context, space/facilities, and school assets/needs. Member checks verified the accuracy of narratives and inductive cross-case analysis was used to explore emergent themes. Six themes emerged: Leadership/Capacity Building, PA Access and Opportunities, Physical Education/PA Equipment and Resources, Physical Fitness Data Management and Reporting, Equity and Access to Safe and Usable Play Spaces, and Community Connections. Results support the feasibility of CSPAPs in rural communities and provide insight to factors influencing CSPAP. This study provides a framework for schools considering the development of CSPAP.
Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau and James C. Hannon
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 36-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on cardiometabolic health markers in children from low-income schools.
Participants were 217 school-aged children (mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 114 girls, 103 boys) recruited from 5 low-income elementary schools. Cardiometabolic health markers were collected in a fasted state at 2 time-points, before commencement of the CSPAP for classroom and school level clustering and the modifying effects of grade level and sex, there were statistically significant improvements in HDL cholesterol (Δ = 3.6 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.4 mg/dL to 5.8 mg/dL, P = .039), triglycerides (Δ = –14.1 mg/dL, 95% CI: –21.4 mg/dL to –6.8 mg/dL, P = .022), and mean arterial pressure (Δ = –4.3 mmHg, 95% CI: –8.5 mmHg to –0.1 mmHg, P = .041) following the 36-week CSPAP intervention. Sixth-grade children showed decreases in LDL cholesterol (Δ = –15.3 mg/dL, 95% CI: –30.5 mg/dL to –0.1 mg/dL, P = .033).
Improvements in specific cardiometabolic health markers were found following a 36-week CSPAP in children from low-income schools.