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Dennis-Peter Born, Billy Sperlich and Hans-Christer Holmberg

To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10–60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2max or during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3–60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.

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Fabrice Vercruyssen, Mathieu Gruet, Serge S. Colson, Sabine Ehrstrom and Jeanick Brisswalter

Background:

Physiological mechanisms behind the use of compression garments (CGs) during off-road running are unknown.

Purpose:

To investigate the influence of wearing CGs vs conventional running clothing (CON) on muscle contractile function and running economy before and after short-distance trail running.

Methods:

Knee-extensor neuromuscular function and running economy assessed from two 5-min treadmill runs (11 and 14 km/h) were evaluated before and after an 18.6-km short-distance trail run in 12 trained athletes wearing either CGs (stocking + short-tight) or CON. Quadriceps neuromuscular function was assessed from mechanical and EMG recording after maximal percutaneous electrical femoral-nerve stimulations (single-twitch doublets at 10 [Db10] and 100 Hz [Db100] delivered at rest and during maximal quadriceps voluntary contraction [MVC]).

Results:

Running economy (in mL O2 · km–1 · kg–1) increased after trail running independent of the clothing condition and treadmill speeds (P < .001). Similarly, MVC decreased after CON and CGs conditions (–11% and –13%, respectively, P < .001). For both clothing conditions, a significant decrease in quadriceps voluntary activation, Db10, Db100, and the low-to-high frequency doublet ratio were observed after trail running (time effect, all P < .01), without any changes in rectus femoris maximal M-wave.

Conclusions:

Wearing CGs does not reduce physiological alterations induced during short-distance trail running. Further studies should determine whether higher intensity of compression pressure during exercises of longer duration may be effective to induce any physiological benefits in experienced trail runners.

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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

oxygenation 16 , 17 during continuous and intermittent high-intensity running, consistent with enhanced muscle pump and venous return demonstrated in clinical studies. 18 , 19 Compression clothing has also been reported to improve arterial perfusion to forearm muscles by more than 2-fold, 20 which was

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Blair Mills, Brad Mayo, Francisco Tavares and Matthew Driller

of motion and landing biomechanics . J Athl Train . 2011 ; 46 ( 1 ): 5 – 10 . PubMed ID: 21214345 doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-46.1.5 21214345 10. Brophy-Williams N , Driller M , Halson S , Fell J , Shing C . Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression

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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

RK , Gore CJ . Reliability and accuracy of six hand-held blood lactate analysers . J Sports Sci Med . 2015 ; 14 ( 1 ): 203 . PubMed 25729309 25. Brophy-Williams N , Driller M , Halson S , Fell J , Shing C . Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression

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Amanda L. Zaleski, Linda S. Pescatello, Kevin D. Ballard, Gregory A. Panza, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Paul D. Thompson and Beth A. Taylor

.ejvs.2014.01.006 10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.01.006 24524814 6. Born DP , Sperlich B , Holmberg HC . Bringing light into the dark: effects of compression clothing on performance and recovery . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2013 ; 8 ( 1 ): 4 – 18 . PubMed ID: 23302134 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.1.4 10

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Guillaume Mornieux, Elmar Weltin, Monika Pauls, Franz Rott and Albert Gollhofer

and repeat-sprint performance in cricket players . Br J Sports Med. 2007 ; 41 ( 7 ): 409 – 414 . PubMed doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.033753 10.1136/bjsm.2006.033753 17341589 17. Sperlich B , Haegele M , Achtzehn S , Linville J , Holmberg H-C , Mester J . Different types of compression

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Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman

-induced muscle damage: a meta-analysis . Br J Sports Med . 2013 ; 48 ( 18 ): 1 – 7 . doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092456 79. Azad F , Holmberg E , Sperlich B . Is there evidence that runners can benefit from wearing compression clothing? Sport Med . 2016 ; 46 : 1939 – 1952 . doi: 10.1007/s40279

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

periodisation . Strength Cond Coach . 2001 ; 9 : 19 – 24 . 96. Delgado-Bordonau JL , Mendez-Villanueva A . Tactical periodization: Mourinho’s best kept secret? Soccer J . 2012 ; 57 ( 3 ): 28 – 34 . 97. Born DP , Sperlich B , Holmberg HC . Bringing light into the dark: effects of compression