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Natalie Cook and Tamerah N. Hunt

concussion reporting intention could lead to more effective educational interventions. Traditional models of behavior predict behavior using multiple personal and social factors. 9 Therefore, it may be beneficial to use multifaceted concussion education that targets other factors in addition to concussion

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Melissa C. Kay, Cailee E. Welch, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Clinical Scenario:

Concussions are one of the most common sport-related injuries affecting athletes participating at all levels across a variety of sports. It has been reported that up to 3.8 million concussive events occur per year that are sports-related. One significant issue with identifying concussions is that a clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of signs and symptoms, which are self-reported by the patient. In the adolescent population, injury to the brain is possible with even the slightest insult, which can affect recovery and predispose them to subsequent concussions. Recent legislative efforts have included athlete education as a means to improve concussion reporting. More specifically, all 50 US states and the District of Columbia have implemented concussion legislation that includes some type of concussion education protocol, but there is still little evidence to suggest that enhanced knowledge levels result in behavior changes, including improved concussion-reporting practices. It is unclear what factors make an adolescent athlete more or less likely to report the symptoms of a concussion.

Focused Clinical Question:

What factors positively or negatively influence secondary school athletes’ likelihood of reporting symptoms of sport-related concussions?

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy, and Christine M. Baugh

, on average males are more likely than females to strongly conform to these norms, and this in turn predicts sex differences in concussion reporting behavioral intentions ( Kroshus et al., 2017 ). To inform possible sub-group relevant approaches to intervention, it is important to investigate pathways

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Jeffrey J. Milroy, Stephen Hebard, Emily Kroshus, and David L. Wyrick

; Register-Mihalik, et al., 2013 ; Torres, et al., 2013 ). There are also potentially modifiable differences in concussion reporting behavior. For some athletes, a lack of knowledge about the injury may be driving their delayed reporting ( Register-Mihalik, et al., 2013 ); however, a growing body of

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Jeffrey G. Caron, Gordon A. Bloom, and Andrew Bennie

There is a need to improve concussion education and prevention efforts for youth athletes and those responsible for their care. The purpose of this study was to understand Canadian high school coaches’ insights and perceptions of concussions. Using a case study design, eight high school coaches were interviewed and the data were analysed using a hierarchical content analysis. Findings indicated that participants primarily acquired information about concussions through their own experiences as athletes and parents, and from reports in the sports media. The coaches’ felt their role with concussions was to teach athletes safety techniques during practices and competitions and to encourage them to accurately report their concussion symptoms. In addition, participants forwarded a number of recommendations to improve the dissemination of information to coaches. Results from this study will add to a limited body of concussion research with youth sport coaches. Participants’ insights provide researchers and clinicians with information about coaches’ perceived role with sport-related concussions.

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Heidi A. Wayment, Ann H. Huffman, Monica Lininger, and Patrick C. Doyle

Key Points ▸ This study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine relationships between social structure, identity perceptions, and concussion-reporting support in an NCAA Division I football team. ▸ Team belonging was positively correlated with having more friends and being highly connected

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. False 20. The most socially influential members of the football team reported higher concussion-reporting support from important others. a. True b. False Attention CEU Quiz Participants CEU tests are available online only at http

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lip d. fingertip 11. It is essential to be consistent when administering the NPC test, especially when establishing baseline scores to compare to postinjury scores. a. True b. False 12. In the Shendell et al. article, what percentage of the fall 2015 concussions reported were sustained playing soccer

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Gregory A. Cranmer and Sara LaBelle

 al.’s ( 2014 ) measure of perceived concussion-reporting consequences. This 10-item measure assessed athletes’ perceptions of the positivity and predictability of coaches’ responses if they reported the symptoms from the provided scenario (e.g., “If I tell my coach about these symptoms, my coach would respond

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Scott L. Bruce and Kyra Dorney

order for a concussion diagnosis. The authors found LOC in approximately 8% of the concussions reported in intercollegiate football players, 15 which is what Casson et al. 16 found in their study of National Football League (NFL) players 10 years later. Others have reported LOC in approximately 10% or