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Laurent B. Seitz, Gabriel S. Trajano and G. Gregory Haff


To compare the acute effects of back squats and power cleans on sprint performance.


Thirteen elite junior rugby league players performed 20-m linear sprints before and 7 min after 2 different conditioning activities or 1 control condition. The conditioning activities included 1 set of 3 back squats or power cleans at 90% 1-repetition maximum. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare preconditioning and postconditioning changes in sprint performance.


Both the back-squat and power-clean conditioning activities demonstrated a potentiation effect as indicated by improved sprint time (back squat: P = .001, ES = –0.66; power cleans: P = .001, ES = –0.92), velocity (back squat: P = .001, ES = 0.63; power cleans: P = .001, ES = 0.84), and average acceleration over 20 m (back squat: P = .001, ES = 0.70; power cleans: P = .001, ES = 1.00). No potentiation effect was observed after the control condition. Overall, the power clean induced a greater improvement in sprint time (P = .042, ES = 0.83), velocity (P = .047, ES = 1.17), and average acceleration (P = .05, ES = 0.87) than the back squat.


Back-squat and power-clean conditioning activities both induced improvements in sprint performance when included as part of a potentiation protocol. However, the magnitude of improvement was greater after the power cleans. From a practical perspective, strength and conditioning coaches should consider using power cleans rather than back squats to maximize the performance effects of potentiation complexes targeting the development of sprint performance.

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

There are a number of variables that need to be considered when designing PAP protocols: type of muscular contraction, time interval between the PAP conditioning activity and subsequent performance test, biomechanical similarities, and intensity of load. PAP methods are commonly classified as either

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) refers to a short-term improvement in physical performance as a result of a previous conditioning activity. 1 Commonly used as the final part of a warm-up routine, 2 PAP-inducing protocols have the potential to enhance athletic activities such as jumping

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi and Riadh Khalifa

minutes of post-PAP intervention. 10 However, practitioners have to consider the logistics of such actions as they require heavy equipment that is not easily retrieved in field-based backgrounds. In addition, these types of conditioning activities may increase the potential risk of injury leading to

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Kevin L. de Keijzer, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono and Marco Beato

either maximal isometric actions or dynamic heavy resistance exercise loads (eg, >85% 1-repetition maximum) to induce an acute effect on performance. 6 , 7 However, a recent body of research has suggested using alternative conditioning activities that are biomechanically similar to the subsequent

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Manuel Terraza-Rebollo and Ernest Baiget

be ready for the next shot. 2 The postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect is an acute enhancement on performance following a conditioning activity. PAP has been shown in explosive movements, mainly movements with SSC, such as jumping, 5 throwing, 6 upper body ballistic performance activities, 7

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Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Chris Bishop, Ronaldo Kobal, Lucas A. Pereira and Michael R. McGuigan

conditioning activity and functional task. The same positive effects were also observed in soccer players, who experienced meaningful increases in 5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint performance after executing BHT under either heavy (85% 1RM) or optimum loading conditions 7 (ie, using the load able to maximize power

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Zied Abbes, Monoem Haddad, Khalid W. Bibi, Iñigo Mujika, Cyril Martin and Karim Chamari

showed that the 3 × 10-second TS exercise used 8 minutes before a 50-m swimming sprint did not result in improved swimming performance. Some studies have suggested that PAP dissipates over ∼5 minutes after the conditioning activity, 11 whereas a recent meta-analysis indicated that a rest interval of 8

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Emily C. Borden, William J. Kraemer, Bryant J. Walrod, Emily M. Post, Lydia K. Caldwell, Matthew K. Beeler, William H. DuPont, John Paul Anders, Emily R. Martini, Jeff S. Volek and Carl M. Maresh

171.6 (2.9) cm, body mass = 69.5 (8.1) kg. At the time of each testing session, none of the subjects were injured and all were fit for participation in the sport. Each had been involved in both wrestling and conditioning activities, and all had been competitive wrestlers from 12 to 14 years, competing

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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong Do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

. , Willett , W.C. , Manson , J.E. , & Hu , F.B. ( 2014 ). Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective study in two cohorts of US women . PLoS Medicine, 11 ( 1 ), e1001587 . doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587 Grøntved , A. , Rimm , E.B. , Willett