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Gert Ulrich and Mario Parstorfer


There are limited data on postactivation potentiation’s (PAP) effects after plyometric conditioning contractions (CCs), especially in the upper body. This study compared plyometric CCs with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CCs aiming to improve upper-body power performance due to a PAP effect.


Sixteen resistance-trained males completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized order that comprised either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON), or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC. Maximal muscle performance, as determined by a ballistic bench-press throw, was measured before (baseline) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min after each CC.


Compared with baseline, bench-press power was significantly enhanced only in CON (P = .046, ES = 0.21) after 8 min of recovery. However, the results obtained from the comparisons between baseline power performance and the individual best power performance for each subject after each CC stimulus showed significant increases in PLY (P < .001, ES = 0.31) and CON (P < .001, ES = 0.38). There was no significant improvement in ECC (P = .106, ES = 0.11).


The results indicate that only CON CCs generated increases in bench-press power after 8 min of rest. However, considering an individual rest interval, PLY CCs led to an enhanced power performance in the bench-press exercise, and this increase was comparable to that induced by CON CCs. Due to the easy practical application before a competition, PLY CCs might be an interesting part of warm-up strategies aiming to improve upper-body power performance by reason of PAP.

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Haiko B. Zimmermann, Débora Knihs, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Brian MacIntosh, and Juliano Dal Pupo

Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a conditioning activity (CA) composed of continuous countermovement jumps on twitch torque production and 30-m sprint times. Methods: A total of 12 sprint athletes, 10 men (23.5 [7.7] y) and 2 women (23.0 [2.8] y), volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were evaluated in 2 sessions as follows: (1) to determine the effects of the CA (3 sets of 5 continuous vertical jumps with a 1-min interval between sets) on 30-m sprint performance over time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) and (2) to evaluate twitch peak torque to determine the magnitude and time course of the induced postactivation potentiation at the same recovery intervals. Results: Mixed-model analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc verified that there was a decrease on the 30-m sprint time at 2 minutes (P = .01; Δ = 2.78%; effect size [ES] = 0.43) and 4 minutes (P = .02; Δ = 2%, ES = 0.30) compared with pre when the CA preceded the sprints. The peak torque of quadriceps also showed significant increase from pretest to 2 minutes (P < .01; Δ = 17.0% [12.2%]; ES = 0.45) and 4 minutes (P = .02; Δ = 7.2% [8.8%]; ES = 0.20). Conclusion: The inclusion of CA composed of continuous countermovement jumps in the warm-up routine improved 30-m sprint performance at 2- and 4-minute time intervals after the CA (postactivation performance enhancement). Since postactivation potentiation was confirmed with electrical stimulation at the time when sprint performance increased, it was concluded that postactivation potentiation may have contributed to the observed performance increases.

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Ian C. Smith and Brian R. MacIntosh

response is revealed by evaluation with the same stimulation as prior to the conditioning contraction. Without assessment with a controlled method of activation, an improved contractile response cannot necessarily be attributed to PAP. Twitch potentiation dissipates over the ∼6-minute period immediately

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* 7 2017 12 6 728 735 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0232 Effects of Plyometric Versus Concentric and Eccentric Conditioning Contractions on Upper-Body Postactivation Potentiation Gert Ulrich * Mario Parstorfer * 7 2017 12 6 736 741 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0278 Heart-Rate Recovery After Warm-up in Swimming: A

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Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco, and David G. Behm

immediately after a conditioning contraction. 5 For this reason, any enhancement of performance or contractile response outside of this time cannot be attributed to PAP.” 1 However, the time course of PAP is not as static as Smith and MacIntosh propose, with examples in the literature of PAP recorded >6

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Daniel Boullosa, César C.C. Abad, Valter P. Reis, Victor Fernandes, Claudio Castilho, Luis Candido, Alessandro M. Zagatto, Lucas A. Pereira, and Irineu Loturco

-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4-km time trial performance . J Strength Cond Res . 2019 ; 33 : 57 – 65 . PubMed ID: 28368959 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001908 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001908 28368959 5. Silva RA , Silva-Junior FL , Pinheiro FA , Souza PF , Boullosa

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Michal Wilk, Michal Krzysztofik, Milosz Drozd, and Adam Zajac

methodologies in sport . Sports Med . 2014 ; 44 ( 5 ): 603 – 623 . PubMed ID: 24497158 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0145-2 24497158 10.1007/s40279-014-0145-2 17. Baudry S , Duchateau J . Postactivation potentiation in human muscle is not related to the type of maximal conditioning contraction . Muscle Nerve

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David Barranco-Gil, Lidia B. Alejo, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Eduardo Talavera, Susana Moral-González, Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez, and Alejandro Lucia

cycling warm-up including high-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4-km time trial performance . J Strength Cond Res . 2019 ; 33 ( 1 ): 57 – 65 . PubMed ID: 28368959 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001908. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001908 28368959 30. Feros SA , Young WB

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Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco, and David G. Behm

of evoked twitch tension induced by voluntary activation of the muscle PAPE Enhancement of subsequent voluntary, rather than electrically evoked (twitch), force production following high-intensity voluntary conditioning contraction(s) Abbreviations: PAP, postactivation potentiation; PAPE

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Ilha G. Fernandes, Matheus A. Souza, Matheus L. Oliveira, Bianca Miarka, Michelle A. Barbosa, Andreia C. Queiroz, and Alexandre C. Barbosa

). Postactivation potentiation (PAP) or posttetanic potentiation is the phenomenon by which muscular performance factors are highly improved as a consequence of earlier conditioning contraction. Posttetanic potentiation is induced by an involuntary tetanic contraction, while PAP is a state of neuromuscular