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Mitchell J. Finlay, Craig A. Bridge, Matt Greig, and Richard M. Page

Although the application of PAPE is a widely adopted practice, a recent study highlighted a lack of conditioning activities (CAs) applied in a typical amateur boxer’s prebout warm-up. 11 In that particular study, a large focus on activity such as shadow boxing, padwork, stretching, and mobility was

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Laurent B. Seitz, Gabriel S. Trajano, and G. Gregory Haff

Purpose:

To compare the acute effects of back squats and power cleans on sprint performance.

Methods:

Thirteen elite junior rugby league players performed 20-m linear sprints before and 7 min after 2 different conditioning activities or 1 control condition. The conditioning activities included 1 set of 3 back squats or power cleans at 90% 1-repetition maximum. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare preconditioning and postconditioning changes in sprint performance.

Results:

Both the back-squat and power-clean conditioning activities demonstrated a potentiation effect as indicated by improved sprint time (back squat: P = .001, ES = –0.66; power cleans: P = .001, ES = –0.92), velocity (back squat: P = .001, ES = 0.63; power cleans: P = .001, ES = 0.84), and average acceleration over 20 m (back squat: P = .001, ES = 0.70; power cleans: P = .001, ES = 1.00). No potentiation effect was observed after the control condition. Overall, the power clean induced a greater improvement in sprint time (P = .042, ES = 0.83), velocity (P = .047, ES = 1.17), and average acceleration (P = .05, ES = 0.87) than the back squat.

Conclusions:

Back-squat and power-clean conditioning activities both induced improvements in sprint performance when included as part of a potentiation protocol. However, the magnitude of improvement was greater after the power cleans. From a practical perspective, strength and conditioning coaches should consider using power cleans rather than back squats to maximize the performance effects of potentiation complexes targeting the development of sprint performance.

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Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco, and David G. Behm

-specific tasks such as explosive jumps, sprints, changes of direction, and throws. 2 , 3 Many different conditioning activities have been used by coaches and researchers to induce subsequent performance enhancements, including resistance, 4 ballistic, 5 and flywheel 6 exercises. The primary mechanism

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin, and Antonio Dello Iacono

There are a number of variables that need to be considered when designing PAP protocols: type of muscular contraction, time interval between the PAP conditioning activity and subsequent performance test, biomechanical similarities, and intensity of load. PAP methods are commonly classified as either

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Haiko B. Zimmermann, Débora Knihs, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Brian MacIntosh, and Juliano Dal Pupo

stimulation. 2 This increase of intrinsic muscle properties is referred to as postactivation potentiation (PAP), and the prior muscle activity is called conditioning activity (CA). 1 Thus, using CA to induce PAP can theoretically lead to increases in contractile response, and this may lead to a subsequent

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Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco, and David G. Behm

minutes after the conditioning activity. 2 , 6 Smith and MacIntosh continue: “However, it is important to realize that PAP is not limited to isometric twitch contractions and that PAP of other contraction types could, theoretically, contribute to PAPE if the effects coincide temporally.” 1 In our article

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato, and Israel Halperin

Postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) refers to a short-term improvement in athletic tasks, such as jumping, sprinting, and throwing, induced by a previous conditioning activity. 1 The onset and magnitude of PAPE effects are influenced by a number of variables and their interactions 2

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Simon A. Feros, Kris Hinck, and Jake Dwyer

bowling accuracy. 10 , 11 Modified implements have also been trialed in warm-ups for the purpose of eliciting postactivation 13 – 15 ; the phenomenon whereby a conditioning activity comprising maximal or near-maximal muscle contractions temporarily increases strength/power production in ballistic

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato, and Israel Halperin

Postactivation potentiation (PAP) refers to a short-term improvement in physical performance as a result of a previous conditioning activity. 1 Commonly used as the final part of a warm-up routine, 2 PAP-inducing protocols have the potential to enhance athletic activities such as jumping

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi, and Riadh Khalifa

minutes of post-PAP intervention. 10 However, practitioners have to consider the logistics of such actions as they require heavy equipment that is not easily retrieved in field-based backgrounds. In addition, these types of conditioning activities may increase the potential risk of injury leading to