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Nonverbal Communication of Confidence in Soccer Referees: An Experimental Test of Darwin’s Leakage Hypothesis

Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer

The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees’ nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments to investigate this question. Experiment 1 (N = 40) and Experiment 2 (N = 60) provided evidence that perceivers regard referees’ NVB as less confident following ambiguous decisions as compared with following unambiguous decisions. Experiment 3 (N = 58) suggested that perceivers were more likely to debate with the referee when referees nonverbally communicated less confidence. We discuss consequences for referee training.

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Exploring Children/Adolescents With Visual Impairments’ Physical Literacy: A Preliminary Investigation of Autonomous Motivation

Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell, and Lauren J. Lieberman

The physically literate person possesses the confidence, competence, motivation, knowledge, and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities throughout the lifespan ( Whitehead, 2001 ). Whitehead ( 2001 ) developed her concept of physical literacy, by

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The Impact of Circus Arts Instruction in Physical Education on the Physical Literacy of Children in Grades 4 and 5

Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley, and Patrice Aubertin

Physical literacy (PL) refers to the competence to perform movement skills, but also the confidence, comprehension, and motivation to allow one to lead a physically active life ( Cohen, Morgan, Plotnikoff, Callister, & Lubans, 2014 ). Other definitions have also included the importance of social

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Coaching Behaviors That Enhance Confidence in Athletes and Teams

Samuel T. Forlenza, Scott Pierce, Robin S. Vealey, and John Mackersie

Research has identified confidence as an important construct that positively affects sport participation and performance ( Vealey & Chase, 2008 ). Identifying and understanding what actions help athletes feel more confident is therefore an important part of coaching. Indeed, athletes identify

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Consultancy Under Pressure: Intervening in the “Here and Now” With an Elite Golfer

John Pates and Kieran Kingston

imagine for a client who was struggling with his performance, the themes that emerged from the interview were a loss of confidence, a loss of concentration on the task, negative automatic self-talk, frustration, negative emotions, and negative spontaneous images. More specifically, he revealed he had lost

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Do Irish Adolescents Have Adequate Functional Movement Skill and Confidence?

Wesley O’Brien, Michael J. Duncan, Orlagh Farmer, and Diarmuid Lester

Physical literacy has been previously defined as having the motivation, confidence, physical competence, understanding, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to live a physically active life ( Whitehead, 2007 ). Movement competency, an integral component of physical literacy, has been shown to be an

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Curling for Confidence: Psychophysical Benefits of Curling for Older Adults

Rachael C. Stone, Zina Rakhamilova, William H. Gage, and Joseph Baker

, 2014 ). Therefore, if an older adult perceives themselves as having not developed this skill set, they are more likely to avoid the sport and the potential failure in performance to retain their activity-related self-confidence ( Kassavou et al., 2014 ; Koeneman Koeneman, Verheijden, Chinapaw

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Performer Perceptions of Movement Confidence

Norma S. Griffin, Jack F. Keogh, and Richard Maybee

The initial study of movement confidence as a construct attempted to answer the research questions of whether confidence is more than competence and whether the determinants of confidence vary in relation to the movement situation. The study was designed as a preliminary examination of these two concerns in terms of the three components-competence, potential for enjoying moving sensations, and potential for harm—which were proposed in the model for movement confidence. Factor and regression analyses of data from 352 college students indicated that movement confidence is more than competence, and the determinants of movement confidence seem to vary in relation to movement situations and possibly in relation to gender. The major contribution of perceived level of confidence generally is a personal feeling of competence. The precise contributions of additional modifiers cannot be specified at present.

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Measurement of Movement Confidence with a Stunt Movement Confidence Inventory

Norma S. Griffin and Michael E. Crawford

The purposes of this study were (a) to construct and validate a Stunt Movement Confidence Inventory (SMCI) that would reliably discriminate between high- and low-confidence children and (b) to examine perceived confidence in light of assumptions from the movement confidence model. Interaction of three components postulated in the model (competence, potentials for enjoyment, and harm) was studied by analyzing the response patterns of 356 children. Reliability coefficients for item, subscale, total scale, and subject stability ranged from r=.79 to .93. SMCI subscales successfully classified 88% of all subjects with a 52.3% improvement over chance and a validity coefficient of .98. The factor matrix accounted for 49% of the total variance and verified the dominance of the competence subscale and the multivariate nature of the harm variable (subscale). Response profiles of low- and high-confidence groups validated the identity and separability of the model's theoretical components—competence, enjoyment, and harm. The SMCI was reliable and valid in discriminating between high- and low-confidence children.

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Patient-Reported Outcomes and Perceived Confidence Measures in Athletes With a History of Ankle Sprain

Revay O. Corbett, Tyler R. Keith, and Jay Hertel

the IdFAI and the CAIT do little to help understand how much confidence an athlete may have in their ankle when RTP following an ankle sprain as they do not gather information about a patient’s perceived instability while performing functional tasks. Perceived instability is an important entity in the