The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees’ nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments to investigate this question. Experiment 1 (N = 40) and Experiment 2 (N = 60) provided evidence that perceivers regard referees’ NVB as less confident following ambiguous decisions as compared with following unambiguous decisions. Experiment 3 (N = 58) suggested that perceivers were more likely to debate with the referee when referees nonverbally communicated less confidence. We discuss consequences for referee training.
Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer
Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell, and Lauren J. Lieberman
The physically literate person possesses the confidence, competence, motivation, knowledge, and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities throughout the lifespan ( Whitehead, 2001 ). Whitehead ( 2001 ) developed her concept of physical literacy, by
Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley, and Patrice Aubertin
Physical literacy (PL) refers to the competence to perform movement skills, but also the confidence, comprehension, and motivation to allow one to lead a physically active life ( Cohen, Morgan, Plotnikoff, Callister, & Lubans, 2014 ). Other definitions have also included the importance of social
Samuel T. Forlenza, Scott Pierce, Robin S. Vealey, and John Mackersie
Research has identified confidence as an important construct that positively affects sport participation and performance ( Vealey & Chase, 2008 ). Identifying and understanding what actions help athletes feel more confident is therefore an important part of coaching. Indeed, athletes identify
John Pates and Kieran Kingston
imagine for a client who was struggling with his performance, the themes that emerged from the interview were a loss of confidence, a loss of concentration on the task, negative automatic self-talk, frustration, negative emotions, and negative spontaneous images. More specifically, he revealed he had lost
Wesley O’Brien, Michael J. Duncan, Orlagh Farmer, and Diarmuid Lester
Physical literacy has been previously defined as having the motivation, confidence, physical competence, understanding, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to live a physically active life ( Whitehead, 2007 ). Movement competency, an integral component of physical literacy, has been shown to be an
Rachael C. Stone, Zina Rakhamilova, William H. Gage, and Joseph Baker
, 2014 ). Therefore, if an older adult perceives themselves as having not developed this skill set, they are more likely to avoid the sport and the potential failure in performance to retain their activity-related self-confidence ( Kassavou et al., 2014 ; Koeneman Koeneman, Verheijden, Chinapaw
Norma S. Griffin, Jack F. Keogh, and Richard Maybee
The initial study of movement confidence as a construct attempted to answer the research questions of whether confidence is more than competence and whether the determinants of confidence vary in relation to the movement situation. The study was designed as a preliminary examination of these two concerns in terms of the three components-competence, potential for enjoying moving sensations, and potential for harm—which were proposed in the model for movement confidence. Factor and regression analyses of data from 352 college students indicated that movement confidence is more than competence, and the determinants of movement confidence seem to vary in relation to movement situations and possibly in relation to gender. The major contribution of perceived level of confidence generally is a personal feeling of competence. The precise contributions of additional modifiers cannot be specified at present.
Norma S. Griffin and Michael E. Crawford
The purposes of this study were (a) to construct and validate a Stunt Movement Confidence Inventory (SMCI) that would reliably discriminate between high- and low-confidence children and (b) to examine perceived confidence in light of assumptions from the movement confidence model. Interaction of three components postulated in the model (competence, potentials for enjoyment, and harm) was studied by analyzing the response patterns of 356 children. Reliability coefficients for item, subscale, total scale, and subject stability ranged from r=.79 to .93. SMCI subscales successfully classified 88% of all subjects with a 52.3% improvement over chance and a validity coefficient of .98. The factor matrix accounted for 49% of the total variance and verified the dominance of the competence subscale and the multivariate nature of the harm variable (subscale). Response profiles of low- and high-confidence groups validated the identity and separability of the model's theoretical components—competence, enjoyment, and harm. The SMCI was reliable and valid in discriminating between high- and low-confidence children.
T. Michelle Magyar and Joan L. Duda
The impact of goal orientations, perceptions of social support, and sources of rehabilitation confidence on the process of confidence restoration from athletic injury was examined among 40 injured intercollegiate athletes (ages 18 to 22 years). Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda & Nicholls, 1992), the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ; Duda, Smart, & Tappe, 1989), and modified versions of the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire (M-SSCQ; Vealey, Hayashi, Garner-Holman, & Giacobbi, 1998) and the State Sport Confidence Inventory (M-SSCI; Vealey, 1986) within the first two days of their rehabilitation program. The SSQ, M-SSCQ, and M-SSCI were completed during the midpoint of the rehabilitation and the day before returning to practice/competition. Results indicated that the tendency to emphasize task-involved goals in sport significantly predicted the selection of mastery and more self-referenced sources of confidence in rehabilitation. Athletes who perceived more social support specific to injury rehabilitation at the beginning of the rehabilitation program were more likely to rely on performance sources to build confidence.