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Johan Y.Y. Ng, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, and Nikos Ntoumanis

We examined motivation contagion in a hypothetical exercise setting. Exercise science students (n = 164) were provided with quotes of hypothetical male and female obese exercisers displaying different quality of motivation to start an exercise program. We used a 3 (exerciser motivation) × 2 (exerciser gender) × 2 (student gender) between-subjects experimental design to examine students’ (a) motivation to instruct, (b) interpersonal style, (c) perception of barrier efficacy of the exerciser, and (d) effort to identify factors that could maximize the effectiveness of an exercise program for the exerciser. Results showed that students displayed less controlled motivation and rated the exerciser as more capable of overcoming barriers to exercise when they perceived the exerciser to be autonomously motivated. However, students, particularly females, reported more autonomy support and invested more effort toward female exercisers with controlled motivation. Our findings indicate that motivation contagion effects are plausible in exercise settings and may affect interactions between fitness instructors and obese clients.

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher, and Gavin Breslin

. Master Theme 2: Biasing Harms and Benefits The side effects reported among our participants support studies ( Parkinson & Evans, 2006 ), indicating that the vast majority (99.2%) of users report harmful side effects from AAS use. In this regard, the second master theme highlighted confirmation bias on

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Franco M. Impellizzeri

not know the body of knowledge on the topic of the scientific paper, thus leading to a biased opinion. In addition, the easy accessibility of PubMed is increasing the “cherry picking” phenomenon (confirmation bias). For this reason, even more attention than in the past should be paid to abstracts to

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Jules Woolf and Jess C. Dixon

“predecisional” stage, processing of information may be biased in favor of a preference. This predilection for supporting information consistent with one’s preference is known as a confirmation bias ( Frey, 1986 ). Thereafter, individuals enter into the group setting with a preferential bias . In a hidden

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Michael W. Kirkwood, David R. Howell, Brian L. Brooks, Julie C. Wilson, and William P. Meehan III

bias. Humans search for and retain information that confirms their preconceived notions and beliefs in the world and tend to avoid or disregard information that goes against what they already believe to be true. These confirmation biases often cause clinicians to test hypotheses that align with their

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Christopher Kevin Wong, Lizbeth Conway, Grant Fleming, Caitlin Gopie, Dara Liebeskind, and Stephen Xue

through subject recruitment from interdisciplinary health discipline students. 11 Other sources of bias include potential confirmation bias due to a lack of assessor blinding. 10 The Cochrane GRADE system was used to assess study quality, with the quality of the combined body of evidence downgraded from

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock, and Mary E. Rudisill

higher during the interview process and considered more likely to be successful in the future at that respective institution. • Confirmation Bias: Tendency to believe facts and perspectives that are consistent with our preconceived beliefs and notions and to minimize or reject those that are not

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Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou

during the games, rather than post event, where the excitement of being overseas and competing can wear off. Thus, the findings should be interpreted with caution, as it is likely that a positive confirmation bias may be present. Finally, planning or intending to do something does not always translate

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Elaine M. Ori, Tanya R. Berry, and Lira Yun

. Individuals reading the original, factually incorrect article reported neutrality with regard to self-reported believability suggesting that they may have been unsure about the content. Previous research has shown that preexisting beliefs and confirmation bias play a significant role in message evaluation

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Kellie Walters, Mary Marshall, Alexandra Nicole Wilkinson, and Michael Duxx Natividad

their responses were captured. In addition, many of our participants spoke English as a second language and may have felt less confident speaking up in a group setting. Another limitation to this study is the potential of confirmation bias due to the dual role of the researchers (researcher and program