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Fuzhong Li and Peter Harmer

This study was designed to assess the factorial construct validity of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) within a hypothesis-testing framework. Data were collected from 173 male and 148 female intercollegiate athletes. Based on Carron et al.’s (1985) conceptual model of group cohesion, the study examined (a) the extent to which the first-order four-factor model could be confirmed with an intercollegiate athlete sample and (b) the degree to which higher order factors could account for the covariation among the four first-order factors. The a priori models of GEQ, including both the first- and second-order factor models, were tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFA results showed that the theoretically specified first- and second-order factor models fit significantly better than all alternative models. These results demonstrated that the GEQ possesses adequate factorial validity and reliability as a measure of the sport group cohesion construct for an intercollegiate athlete sample.

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David Markland, Mark Emberton, and Rachel Tallon

The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Brenda Jo Bredemeier, and Richard M. Shewchuk

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation for use in the sport domain. Third- through sixth-grade boys and girls (N = 155) attending a children's summer sports camp were administered Harter's (1981b) measure of motivational orientation with items reworded to accommodate the sport setting. The data were then subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis for the purpose of testing the fit of the sport motivation data to the original 5-factor structural model identified by Harter for motivation in the cognitive domain. While the goodness-of-fit statistics suggested some resemblance, a number of other diagnostic indicators obtained from the analysis revealed that extensive modifications would be necessary before the Harter model could be considered an adequate representation of the underlying covariance structure of the sport motivation data. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in six interpretable factors that were somewhat different from Harter's original model in terms of hern loadings and factor structure. Moreover, the developmental trends in motivation for third- through sixth-grade children slightly deviated from those reported by Harter. Theoretical, practical, and methodological implications of this study are discussed.

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Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Wendy Y.J. Huang, and Robin R. Mellecker


Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children’s physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers’ PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong.


Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined.


The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child’s PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89).


We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

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Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs, and Michael A. Hemphill

) developing items to be included on the ToRQ, (b) identifying a stable factor structure for the ToRQ using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), (c) confirming the factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a separate participant sample, and (d) examining the extent to which the ToRQ correlates

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Wei-Ting Hsu and Min Pan

evidence . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13 , 108 – 117 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.007 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.007 Jackson , D.L. , Gillaspy , J.A. , & Purc-Stephenson , R. ( 2009 ). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations

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Peter R.E. Crocker, Marcel Bouffard, and Mark E. Gessaroli

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Georgios D. Sideridis and Judy P. Chandler

The Teacher Integration Attitudes Questionnaire (TIAQ) was developed in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs of teachers (n = 110) with regard to the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education settings. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the final structural model of the TIAQ comprised four constructs, namely, “Skills,” “Benefits,” “Acceptance,” and “Support.” The final model was fully supported by the derivation sample of music education teachers (n = 54) and produced a Comparative Fit Index (CFI = 1.00). The replication sample of physical education teachers (n = 56) partially supported the generality of the TIAQ, (CFI = .844). Further, the internal consistency properties of the TIAQ (Cronbach’s alpha was .77 for both samples) were satisfactory. We conclude that the psychometric properties of the TIAQ were adequate, and it can be used as a valid assessment in evaluating the status of inclusion for students with disabilities as perceived by music education and physical education teachers. However, future research is needed to support its generality with other groups of teachers and professionals.

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Mary D. Walling, Joan L. Duda, and Likang Chi

The purpose of this study was to further examine the construct and predictive validity of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire or PMCSQ. Young athletes (N = 169, M age = 14.2 ± 1.94 years) on teams competing in an amateur international competition completed questionnaires measuring perceived motivational climate, the degree of worry experienced while participating, and team satisfaction. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable fit of the data with the hypothetical measurement model. In terms of the predictive utility of the PMCSQ, perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to satisfaction with being a member on the team and negatively associated with performance worry. In contrast, perceptions of a performance climate were positively associated with concerns about failing and the adequacy of one's performance and negatively correlated with team satisfaction. Future directions in terms of instrument development and research on motivational climate in the sport setting are presented.