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Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Group Environment Questionnaire with an Intercollegiate Sample

Fuzhong Li and Peter Harmer

This study was designed to assess the factorial construct validity of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) within a hypothesis-testing framework. Data were collected from 173 male and 148 female intercollegiate athletes. Based on Carron et al.’s (1985) conceptual model of group cohesion, the study examined (a) the extent to which the first-order four-factor model could be confirmed with an intercollegiate athlete sample and (b) the degree to which higher order factors could account for the covariation among the four first-order factors. The a priori models of GEQ, including both the first- and second-order factor models, were tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFA results showed that the theoretically specified first- and second-order factor models fit significantly better than all alternative models. These results demonstrated that the GEQ possesses adequate factorial validity and reliability as a measure of the sport group cohesion construct for an intercollegiate athlete sample.

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Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale among Children

David Markland, Mark Emberton, and Rachel Tallon

The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.

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An Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation Scale for the Youth Sport Setting: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Maureen R. Weiss, Brenda Jo Bredemeier, and Richard M. Shewchuk

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation for use in the sport domain. Third- through sixth-grade boys and girls (N = 155) attending a children's summer sports camp were administered Harter's (1981b) measure of motivational orientation with items reworded to accommodate the sport setting. The data were then subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis for the purpose of testing the fit of the sport motivation data to the original 5-factor structural model identified by Harter for motivation in the cognitive domain. While the goodness-of-fit statistics suggested some resemblance, a number of other diagnostic indicators obtained from the analysis revealed that extensive modifications would be necessary before the Harter model could be considered an adequate representation of the underlying covariance structure of the sport motivation data. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in six interpretable factors that were somewhat different from Harter's original model in terms of hern loadings and factor structure. Moreover, the developmental trends in motivation for third- through sixth-grade children slightly deviated from those reported by Harter. Theoretical, practical, and methodological implications of this study are discussed.

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Development of Physical Activity–Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability

Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Wendy Y.J. Huang, and Robin R. Mellecker


Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children’s physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers’ PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong.


Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined.


The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child’s PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89).


We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

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Measuring Perceived Transfer of Responsibility Learning From Physical Education: Initial Validation of the Transfer of Responsibility Questionnaire

Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs, and Michael A. Hemphill

) developing items to be included on the ToRQ, (b) identifying a stable factor structure for the ToRQ using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), (c) confirming the factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a separate participant sample, and (d) examining the extent to which the ToRQ correlates

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The Körperkoordinations Test Für Kinder for Iranian Youth: Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Covariates

Sedigheh Salami, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Clarice Martins, Louise L. Hardy, Amir Shams, and Parvaneh Shamsipour Dehkordi

. In this respect, it is important to investigate the structural validity of the KTK, which determines whether a test score reflects the dimensionality of the construct that is being measured. This can be tested using several statistical approaches including confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Nunnally

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Development and Validation of the Teacher RISE Support Scale in Physical Education

Wei-Ting Hsu and Min Pan

evidence . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13 , 108 – 117 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.007 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.007 Jackson , D.L. , Gillaspy , J.A. , & Purc-Stephenson , R. ( 2009 ). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations

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Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument

Aia Boldovskaia, Diogo S. Teixeira, Marlene N. Silva, and Eliana V. Carraça

between −2 and +2 and kurtosis between −7 and +7 were considered threshold values. 26 All analyses were developed using IBM SPSS Statistics (version 26) and IBM SPSS Amos (version 23). Confirmatory Factor Analysis To test the construct validity of the PPLI-PT, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis

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Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Urdu Version of Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version in Pakistan

Masood Mahfooz, Young-Eun Noh, and Eng Wah Teo

include orthogonal four-factor models, best fit the data; however, Model 3, with modification indices, produced the best fit. The descriptive statistics of the CAI items are presented in Table  3 . Figure 1 —Confirmatory factor analysis with four orthogonal factors and modification indices (Model 3). ORTP

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Measuring Enjoyment in Youth Sport Settings: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

Peter R.E. Crocker, Marcel Bouffard, and Mark E. Gessaroli