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Mark Conner, Wendy Rodgers and Terra Murray

The present study examined the moderating role of conscientiousness within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for exercise behavior during usual vs. unusual context. Affective and cognitive attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, past behavior, conscientiousness, and self-reported behavior were assessed in relation to exercising in a sample of university students (n = 146). Conscientiousness was found to significantly moderate the intention–behavior relationship when the behavior was performed in unusual context (exercising during a reading week of term), but not when behavior was performed in usual context (exercising during a normal week of term). The find-ings indicate a role for conscientiousness in understanding intention–behavior relationships when the context of behavior is changing or unknown.

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Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Ruben de Groot, Bas van den Putte and Ryan Rhodes

The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

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Rafael A. B. Tedesqui and Bradley W. Young

conscientiousness , may hold much promise for understanding individual differences in how athletes approach, navigate, tolerate, optimize, and enhance their personal activities and efforts during intensive, deliberate sport practice ( Tedesqui & Young, 2018 ). In particular, emerging sport studies have positioned

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Ryan E. Rhodes, Kerry S. Courneya and Leslie A. Hayduk

This study investigated the moderating influence of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the exercise domain. Although an analysis of all possible moderation effects was conducted, it was hypothesized that high extraversion (E) and conscientiousness (C) individuals would demonstrate significantly stronger relationships between intentions and exercise behavior than those low in E and C. Conversely, it was expected that high neuroticism (N) individuals would show a significantly weaker relationship between intention and exercise behavior than those low in N. A total of 300 undergraduate students completed measures of the FFM, TPB, and a 2-week follow-up of exercise behavior. Two-group structural equation models of the TPB were created using a median split for each personality trait. Overall, 5 significant (p < .05) moderating effects were found. Specifically, N was found to moderate the effect of subjective norm on intention. E also moderated the effects of subjective norm on intention as well as intention on behavior. C moderated the effects of affective attitude on intention and intention on behavior. Theorized influences for the presence or absence of personality moderators are discussed. The results generally support the possibility of personality being a moderator of the TPB but highlight the need for future research and replication.

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Tim Woodman, Matt Barlow, Comille Bandura, Miles Hill, Dominika Kupciw and Alexandra MacGregor

Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI’s good model–data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

for agreeableness, four out of the Big Five personality (BFP) traits (i.e., extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness) were significant predictors of participation in physical activities. At the same time, several personality studies have been conducted to explain sport spectator

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Ken R. Lodewyk

There has been considerable development in the valid quantitative assessment of trait personality dimensions such as honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (HEXACO; Ashton & Lee, 2007 ). Various combinations of these personality

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Jessica Ross and Peter D. MacIntyre

; Ross & Keiser, 2014 ; Ullén et al., 2012 ). The Big Five reflect a basic taxonomy of traits that has received widespread agreement since the early 1990s (see Goldberg, 1992 for a brief history). 1 For Goldberg ( 1992 ), the Big Five are Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional

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Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke

), conscientiousness ( r  = .10), and openness ( r  = .03). However, agreeableness revealed as not being significantly interrelated with physical activity ( r  < .01). This validates earlier studies, such as the meta-analysis by Rhodes and Smith ( 2006 ), which also found that selected personality factors and physical

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Jeanette Frost Ebstrup, Mette Aadahl, Lene Falgaard Eplov, Charlotta Pisinger and Torben Jørgensen


Leisure-time sitting-time (LTST) is seen as a possible independent risk-factor for physical and mental health, but research on psychological determinants is sparse. Associations between sitting-time and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and the role of general self-efficacy (GSE) were investigated.


A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Denmark, in 2006−08. Men and women (N = 3471) aged 18 to 69, were randomly sampled in the suburbs of Copenhagen. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Self-Efficacy-Scale, and the Physical Activity Scale 2 were used.


Negative associations were found between LTST and extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness, while neuroticism showed a positive association (R 2 = .13). The associations with agreeableness became significantly positive, when GSE was included. All 5 associations were mediated by GSE, with mediation proportions between 23%−60%; but with modest effect sizes.


These cross-sectional results indicate that personality traits and GSE could be considered as associates of LTST; but future longitudinal data are necessary to make causal statements and rule out alternative models fitting data.