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Richard J. Keegan, Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright and John R. Evans

) survey software, and then exported into Microsoft Excel for analysis (Version 16.0.10325.20082, Microsoft Office Professional 2016; Redmond, WA). Design The Delphi technique is an iterative process, designed to combine expert opinion, in order to arrive at a group consensus ( Hsu & Sandford, 2007

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

: 133 – 145 . 7. Meeusen R , Duclos M , Foster C , et al . Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2013 ; 45 : 186 – 205 . PubMed

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Tricia Majewski-Schrage, Todd A. Evans and Brian Ragan

Context:

Despite widespread acceptance, there is currently no consensus on the definition, components, and the specific techniques most appropriate to measure and quantify core stability.

Objective:

To develop a comprehensive core-stability model addressing its definition, components, and assessment techniques.

Design:

Delphi technique.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

15 content experts from United States and Canada, representing a variety of disciplines.

Main Outcome Measure:

The authors distributed an open-ended questionnaire pertaining to a core-stability definition, components, and assessment techniques specific to each expert. They collected data over 2 rounds of telephone interviews. They concluded data collection once a consensus was achieved that equated with 51% agreement among respondents.

Results:

The authors developed a working definition of core stability as the ability to achieve and sustain control of the trunk region at rest and during precise movement. Eighty-three percent of the experts considered the definition satisfactory. Therefore, the definition was accepted. Furthermore, the experts agreed that muscles (14/15 = 93.3%) and neuromuscular control (8/12 = 66.7%) were components of core stability. Assessment techniques were identified and inconsistencies were highlighted; however, no consensus was established.

Conclusions:

A consensus core-stability definition was created and 2 components were identified. However, of the initial definitions provided by the experts, no 2 were identical, which revealed the inconsistencies among experts and the importance of this study. Nonetheless, the goal of obtaining a consensus definition was obtained. Although a consensus for the assessment techniques of core stability could not be reached, it was a beneficial starting point to identify the inconsistencies that were discovered among the content experts.

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Nicholas Gilson, Wendy J. Brown, Guy Faulkner, Jim McKenna, Marie Murphy, Andy Pringle, Karin Proper, Anna Puig-Ribera and Aphroditi Stathi

Background:

This paper aimed to use the Delphi technique to develop a consensus framework for a multinational, workplace walking intervention.

Methods:

Ideas were gathered and ranked from eight recognized and emerging experts in the fields of physical activity and health, from universities in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, and Spain. Members of the panel were asked to consider the key characteristics of a successful campus walking intervention. Consensus was reached by an inductive, content analytic approach, conducted through an anonymous, three-round, e-mail process.

Results:

The resulting framework consisted of three interlinking themes defined as “design, implementation, and evaluation.” Top-ranked subitems in these themes included the need to generate research capacity (design), to respond to group needs through different walking approaches (implementation), and to undertake physical activity assessment (evaluation). Themes were set within an underpinning domain, referred to as the “institution” and sites are currently engaging with subitems in this domain, to provide sustainable interventions that refect the practicalities of local contexts and needs.

Conclusions:

Findings provide a unique framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating walking projects in universities and highlight the value of adopting the Delphi technique for planning international, multisite health initiatives.

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Cole Mueller and Mary Spencer Cain

LAS. However, there are numerous published expert opinion papers on RTS within the literature. Establishing agreement among such opinions could help to further clinical practice and research into this important area. Objective To determine if there was consensus among published expert opinions that

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James F. Sallis and Kevin Patrick

The International Consensus Conference on Physical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents convened to review the effects of physical activity on the health of adolescents, to establish age-appropriate physical activity guidelines, and to consider how these guidelines might be implemented in primary health care settings. Thirty-four invited experts and representatives of scientific, medical, and governmental organizations established two main guidelines. First, all adolescents should be physically active daily or nearly every day as part of their lifestyles. Second, adolescents should engage in three or more sessions per week of activities that last 20 min or more and that require moderate to vigorous levels of exertion. Available data suggest that the vast majority of U.S. adolescents meet the first guideline, but only about two thirds of boys and one half of girls meet the second guideline. Physical activity has important effects on the health of adolescents, and the promotion of regular physical activity should be a priority for physicians and other health professionals.

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Pitre C. Bourdon, Marco Cardinale, Andrew Murray, Paul Gastin, Michael Kellmann, Matthew C. Varley, Tim J. Gabbett, Aaron J. Coutts, Darren J. Burgess, Warren Gregson and N. Timothy Cable

Monitoring the load placed on athletes in both training and competition has become a very hot topic in sport science. Both scientists and coaches routinely monitor training loads using multidisciplinary approaches, and the pursuit of the best methodologies to capture and interpret data has produced an exponential increase in empirical and applied research. Indeed, the field has developed with such speed in recent years that it has given rise to industries aimed at developing new and novel paradigms to allow us to precisely quantify the internal and external loads placed on athletes and to help protect them from injury and ill health. In February 2016, a conference on “Monitoring Athlete Training Loads—The Hows and the Whys” was convened in Doha, Qatar, which brought together experts from around the world to share their applied research and contemporary practices in this rapidly growing field and also to investigate where it may branch to in the future. This consensus statement brings together the key findings and recommendations from this conference in a shared conceptual framework for use by coaches, sport-science and -medicine staff, and other related professionals who have an interest in monitoring athlete training loads and serves to provide an outline on what athlete-load monitoring is and how it is being applied in research and practice, why load monitoring is important and what the underlying rationale and prospective goals of monitoring are, and where athlete-load monitoring is heading in the future.

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Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth

how to leverage charity challenges (e.g., race for life) as a gateway to more regular exercise ( McVinnie, Plateau, & Stevinson, 2018 ). Extended abstracts, providing a greater level of detail, are featured in this issue of the Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal . Next Steps The consensus

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

body systems ( Hossein-nezhad et al., 2013 ); many athletes are at risk of insufficiency at various times throughout the year ( Larson-Meyer & Willis, 2010 ) No consensus over the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (the marker of vitamin D status) that defines deficiency, insufficiency

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Nick Cavill, Stuart Biddle and James F. Sallis

An expert consensus development process was initiated to make public health recommendations regarding young people (5–18 years) and physical activity. Eight commissioned review papers were discussed at a meeting of over 50 academics and experts from a range of disciplines from the UK and overseas. Participants agreed on a consensus statement that summarized the research evidence and made two core recommendations. First, to optimize current and future health, all young people should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for 1 hour per day. Young people who currently do little activity should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for at least half an hour per day. The subsidiary recommendation is that, at least twice a week, some of these activities should help to enhance and maintain muscular strength and flexibility and bone health. A second aspect of the consensus process, which was based on extensive consultation, outlined the practical ways in which key organizations can work together to implement these recommendations. The resultant consensus statement provides a strong basis for the planning of future policies and programs to enhance young people’s participation in health-enhancing physical activity