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Jaime Serra-Olivares, Luis M. García-López, and Antonio Calderón

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball; another on penetrating-the-defense; and one on attacking-the-goal. Results showed that the modification of tactical problems had a significantly different effect on tactical-context adaptation (p < .005) and for developing passing, dribbling, shooting and getting free skills (p < .005). Small-sided games focused on keeping-the-ball and attacking-the-goal revealed a tactical complexity that was significantly different to the rest of the games (p < .005). With regard to the further investigation of the quality representative task design, these findings highlight the importance of knowing the effects that modification has on tactical constraints and the tactical complexity/technical difficulty involved in developing behaviors.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour, and Keith Davids

, and surfaces in an everyday living environment ( Qiu et al., 2012 ). The ability to cope with key environmental constraints such as surfaces; barriers; and external objects (size, shape, color, etc.) is an important cognitive–perceptual factor that could affect movement planning ( Sánchez, Murillo

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Marzie Balali, Shahab Parvinpour, and Mohsen Shafizadeh

mature level of these skills, as a proficiency constraint, is likely to limit participation in activities for health or sports ( Seefeldt, 1980 ). For example, it was reported that the development in object control skills of primary school children was strongly associated with physical activity and

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Shahab Parvinpour, and Andrew Barnes

). In another study, it was shown that when the ratio of organized training time to free play time was greater than 2:1, the odds of overuse injury was 1.8 ( Jayanthi et al., 2015 ). This could be explained through the lens of matching between task and organismic constraints and finding a balanced

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Athanasia Smirniotou, Flora Panteli, and Apostolos Theodorou

) available during performance, as multiple constraints act on the “athlete—environment” system ( Araújo et al., 2006 , 2007 ). The constraints-led approach suggests that skill development depends on self-organization under task, individual, and environmental constraints as well as the effective coupling of

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Romana Puchegger and Toni Bruce

is not in a binary relationship; rather, it is influenced by emerging constraints within teaching‐learning situations that may include, at the microlevel of the classroom, student‐teacher‐parent relationships and what each student brings into the classroom ( Puchegger, 2018 ). Other elements that

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Lisa Musculus, Jurek Bäder, Lukas Sander, and Tobias Vogt

, it is far from well understood how environmental constraints imposed by the task or the situation impact cognitive decision-making processes (for exceptions, see Belling et al., 2015 ; Musculus, 2018 ; Musculus et al., 2018 ; Roca et al., 2013 ; Vaeyens et al., 2007 ). Gaining a better

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes, and Ludovic Seifert

set of constraints) appears to be the most important property of dexterity, as this latter does not refer to the movements themselves, but to their adaptation to a set of constraints. In fact, following the ecological dynamics theoretical framework, the successful performer is able to adapt his

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Amirhossein Emamian, Alireza Hashemi Oskouei, Rasoul Azreh, and Kevin Carroll

Constraint training (CT) is developed based on the theory of motor learning development due to manipulation of movement constraints including environmental, organism, and task limitations ( Newell, 1985 ). For instance, a task constraint might refer to the exclusion of the arm swing in the vertical

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Dilara Ebru Uçar, Günay Yıldızer, and İlker Yılmaz

and contain various psychological, physical, and environmental components. 9 Carty et al 10 indicated that lower numbers of PA participation for individuals with disabilities reflect additional constraints including personal, social, and environmental compared with individuals without any disability