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Jaime Serra-Olivares, Luis M. García-López and Antonio Calderón

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball; another on penetrating-the-defense; and one on attacking-the-goal. Results showed that the modification of tactical problems had a significantly different effect on tactical-context adaptation (p < .005) and for developing passing, dribbling, shooting and getting free skills (p < .005). Small-sided games focused on keeping-the-ball and attacking-the-goal revealed a tactical complexity that was significantly different to the rest of the games (p < .005). With regard to the further investigation of the quality representative task design, these findings highlight the importance of knowing the effects that modification has on tactical constraints and the tactical complexity/technical difficulty involved in developing behaviors.

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Ludovic Seifert

set of constraints) appears to be the most important property of dexterity, as this latter does not refer to the movements themselves, but to their adaptation to a set of constraints. In fact, following the ecological dynamics theoretical framework, the successful performer is able to adapt his

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Hebe Schaillée, Ramón Spaaij, Ruth Jeanes and Marc Theeboom

identifying the different translation practices that researchers adopt, as well as the enablers and constraints that affect knowledge translation. The article is structured as follows. The next section defines and conceptualizes knowledge translation. We then discuss two applied research projects that will be

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Itay Basevitch, Gershon Tenenbaum, Edson Filho, Selen Razon, Nataniel Boiangin and Paul Ward

informational constraint induced by temporal occlusion (henceforth, temporal constraint). The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the relative differences in performance of high- and low-skill male soccer players on domain-specific anticipation and situation assessment tests under varying degrees

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David Simbaña Escobar, Philippe Hellard, David B. Pyne and Ludovic Seifert

, individual skills, swimming specialty, sex, or body composition) and a set of constraints (ie, task, environment, organism) supporting that movement variability in complex perception-action systems could be functional. 15 , 16 In swimming, it has been suggested that, more than simply ensuring stability

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Tsung-Yu Hsieh, Matheus M. Pacheco and Karl M. Newell

The goal of present experiment was to test whether different speed-accuracy paradigms outcomes (time minimization and time matching) were due to different temporal and spatial task constraints. Fifteen participants twice performed 100 trials of time minimization and time matching tasks with the yoked temporal and spatial requirements (criterion time and target width). The results showed that performing an aiming movement under the same spatial and temporal constraints resulted in similar outcomes with distributional properties (skewness and kurtosis) being slightly affected by practice effects. There was a trade-off in the information entropy for space and time (temporal information entropy decreased as spatial information entropy increased) with practice. Nevertheless, the joint space-time entropy of outcome did not change across tasks and conditions—revealing a common level of space-time entropy between these two categories of aiming tasks. These findings support the hypothesis that under the same spatial and temporal constraints the movement speed-accuracy function shares the same properties independent of task category.

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Diane E. Whaley and Vicki Ebbeck

This study used a qualitative, feminist perspective to examine issues pertaining to exercise constraints among older adults. Participants were 8 male and 9 female older adults (mean age = 76.7) who chose not to engage in structured exercise classes. Twenty-six self-identified constraints were elicited (mean = four per person). Additionally, four constraints per person from previous research were selected. The most frequently cited self-reported constraints were “get enough exercise elsewhere,” health-related items, and issues related to time. From the constraints most frequently cited in past studies, inconvenience, time, and type of activity were selected most often. Gender differences were apparent in the constraints chosen as well as reasons why a particular constraint inhibited or prohibited activity. Specific suggestions for strategies included having programs with a purpose, building in flexibility, and encouraging men to participate. The influence of gender is explored, especially how expanding our understanding of gender issues might improve program planning.

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Joshua Nimmins, Ben Strafford and Joseph Stone

underpinned by Newell et al.’s ( 1986 ) constraint model that states the emergence of behavior could be guided through the confluence of task, environmental, and organismic constraints ( Renshaw, Chow, Davids, & Hammond, 2010 ). Therefore, through task simplification, appropriate and progressive skill

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Geetanjali Gera, Sandra Freitas, Mark Latash, Katherine Monahan, Gregor Schöner and John Scholz

This study investigated the use of motor abundance during the transport and placing of objects that required either precise or minimal orientation to the target. Analyses across repetitions of the structure of joint configuration variance relative to the position and orientation constraints were performed using the Uncontrolled Manifold (UCM) approach. Results indicated that the orientation constraint did not affect stability of the hand’s spatial path. Orientation was weakly stabilized during the late transport phase independent of the orientation constraint, indicating no default synergy stabilizing orientation. Stabilization of orientation for conditions most requiring it for successful insertion of the object was present primarily during the adjustment phase. The results support the hypothesis that a major advantage of a control scheme that utilizes motor abundance is the ability to resolve multiple task constraints simultaneously without undue interference among them.

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Peter Hastie

seasons manipulate the competition format so that the initial games are 2 versus 2, then 4 versus 4, and eventually 6 versus 6 with the environmental constraints manipulated to progress with the increasing competence of the students. Sport education also has an inbuilt possibility of including what we