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Jaime Serra-Olivares, Luis M. García-López, and Antonio Calderón

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball; another on penetrating-the-defense; and one on attacking-the-goal. Results showed that the modification of tactical problems had a significantly different effect on tactical-context adaptation (p < .005) and for developing passing, dribbling, shooting and getting free skills (p < .005). Small-sided games focused on keeping-the-ball and attacking-the-goal revealed a tactical complexity that was significantly different to the rest of the games (p < .005). With regard to the further investigation of the quality representative task design, these findings highlight the importance of knowing the effects that modification has on tactical constraints and the tactical complexity/technical difficulty involved in developing behaviors.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour, and Keith Davids

, and surfaces in an everyday living environment ( Qiu et al., 2012 ). The ability to cope with key environmental constraints such as surfaces; barriers; and external objects (size, shape, color, etc.) is an important cognitive–perceptual factor that could affect movement planning ( Sánchez, Murillo

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Marzie Balali, Shahab Parvinpour, and Mohsen Shafizadeh

mature level of these skills, as a proficiency constraint, is likely to limit participation in activities for health or sports ( Seefeldt, 1980 ). For example, it was reported that the development in object control skills of primary school children was strongly associated with physical activity and

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Athanasia Smirniotou, Flora Panteli, and Apostolos Theodorou

) available during performance, as multiple constraints act on the “athlete—environment” system ( Araújo et al., 2006 , 2007 ). The constraints-led approach suggests that skill development depends on self-organization under task, individual, and environmental constraints as well as the effective coupling of

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes, and Ludovic Seifert

set of constraints) appears to be the most important property of dexterity, as this latter does not refer to the movements themselves, but to their adaptation to a set of constraints. In fact, following the ecological dynamics theoretical framework, the successful performer is able to adapt his

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Lisa Musculus, Jurek Bäder, Lukas Sander, and Tobias Vogt

, it is far from well understood how environmental constraints imposed by the task or the situation impact cognitive decision-making processes (for exceptions, see Belling et al., 2015 ; Musculus, 2018 ; Musculus et al., 2018 ; Roca et al., 2013 ; Vaeyens et al., 2007 ). Gaining a better

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Romana Puchegger and Toni Bruce

is not in a binary relationship; rather, it is influenced by emerging constraints within teaching‐learning situations that may include, at the microlevel of the classroom, student‐teacher‐parent relationships and what each student brings into the classroom ( Puchegger, 2018 ). Other elements that

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Amirhossein Emamian, Alireza Hashemi Oskouei, Rasoul Azreh, and Kevin Carroll

Constraint training (CT) is developed based on the theory of motor learning development due to manipulation of movement constraints including environmental, organism, and task limitations ( Newell, 1985 ). For instance, a task constraint might refer to the exclusion of the arm swing in the vertical

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Tsung-Yu Hsieh, Matheus M. Pacheco, and Karl M. Newell

The goal of present experiment was to test whether different speed-accuracy paradigms outcomes (time minimization and time matching) were due to different temporal and spatial task constraints. Fifteen participants twice performed 100 trials of time minimization and time matching tasks with the yoked temporal and spatial requirements (criterion time and target width). The results showed that performing an aiming movement under the same spatial and temporal constraints resulted in similar outcomes with distributional properties (skewness and kurtosis) being slightly affected by practice effects. There was a trade-off in the information entropy for space and time (temporal information entropy decreased as spatial information entropy increased) with practice. Nevertheless, the joint space-time entropy of outcome did not change across tasks and conditions—revealing a common level of space-time entropy between these two categories of aiming tasks. These findings support the hypothesis that under the same spatial and temporal constraints the movement speed-accuracy function shares the same properties independent of task category.

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Hebe Schaillée, Ramón Spaaij, Ruth Jeanes, and Marc Theeboom

identifying the different translation practices that researchers adopt, as well as the enablers and constraints that affect knowledge translation. The article is structured as follows. The next section defines and conceptualizes knowledge translation. We then discuss two applied research projects that will be