This interpretive case study describes five norms of the school culture that facilitated a teacher’s (the second author) adoption and learning of a constructivist approach to physical education. The second author used a movement approach initially based on Every Child a Winner. The first author conducted field observations at the elementary school across 3 years and formal interviews and numerous informal interviews each day of field work with teachers, principals, staff, and children. The five norms or set of norms were (a) the set of norms defining the school philosophy, (b) teacher learning, (c) teacher participatory power and responsibility, (d) continual school improvement, and (e) the tendency “to feel that we can do anything.” The paper describes how the norms influenced the physical educator and the physical educators’ role in creating and maintaining the norms.
Inez Rovegno and Dianna Bandhauer
Inez Rovegno and Dianna Bandhauer
This case study tells the story of an in-service elementary physical education teacher, who made a large-scale change from an activities approach to a movement approach based, initially, on “Every Child a Winner” (Rockett & Owens, 1977). Five psychological dispositions facilitated the development of the teacher’s knowledge: (a) the disposition to understand the approach accurately and deeply and to do the job right, (b) the disposition to accept that the approach was difficult to learn and to persist in seeking clarification, (c) the disposition to justify and develop a practice in keeping with a sound educational philosophy and theoretical foundations, (d) the disposition toward change and to learn and implement new ideas, and (e) the disposition to suspend judgment of new ideas. Dispositions can be important aspects of teacher thinking and can help to explain successful knowledge development and teacher change.
Mario Díaz-Cueto, Juan Luis Hernández-Álvarez and Francisco Javier Castejón
The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of in-service Physical Education (PE) teachers when using Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in teaching sports. Data were gathered from interviews, work group meetings, and participants’ diaries. The results show the difficulties PE teachers had in the planning and implementation of TGfU. In the initial stage of implementing TGfU, teachers reported feelings of insecurity to the point of doubting their own pedagogical expertise and knowledge. They also reported anxiety and exhaustion. Once they surpassed the first stage, teachers’ feelings of satisfaction increased in parallel with students’ improvement, in particular because students with the lowest skill level had made significant progress in decision-making, overall compression of the game, and tactical problem solving. This study identified some major challenges facing PE teachers wishing to implement TGfU, and thus allows for the development of support strategies to promote teachers’ pedagogical self-assessment.
K. Andrew R. Richards and Thomas J. Templin
critically reflect upon and critique their own subjective theories ( Richards et al., 2013 ). Such a constructivist approach should be supported by and focus on field-based learning as a central component of teacher education and development ( Graber et al., 2017 ). Field experiences can, however, become
Kelly S. Witte
The main purpose of this article is to present a student-centered learning approach for developing a working coaching philosophy. The strategy provided is appropriate for coaching educators to use with students as well as practicing coaches to reflect on their own development through personal experience and practice. It stems from the constructivist approach to learning and guides the reader or student through an active process of recollection, reflection, and critical thinking. During this progression, a personal construct of understanding is created from impact moments that have occurred to-date involving their sport and/or coaching experiences which shape their own philosophy.
Davis and Sumara (2003) argue that differences between commonsense assumptions about learning and those upon which constructivism rests present a significant challenge for the fostering of constructivist approaches to teaching in schools. Indeed, as Rink (2001) suggests, initiating any change process for teaching method needs to involve some understanding of the theories supporting it. Although there has been considerable discussion about constructivism in the physical education literature over the past decade, there has been less attention paid to the assumptions about learning and knowledge that underpin it. This article makes a contribution toward redressing this oversight in the literature by examining the epistemology and assumptions about learning that constructivist theories of learning rest upon. Drawing on the work of Davis and Sumara (2003), I suggest that the term “complex” learning theories may offer a more useful description of the sometimes confusing range of constructivist approaches. I provide examples of, and suggestions for, the application of constructivism in practice and within which the body forms a prominent theme.
Isabel Mesquita, Joana Ribeiro, Sofia Santos and Kevin Morgan
The aim of this study was to analyze Portuguese expert coaches’ conceptions of learning sources that promote long-term coach development and the extent to which these sources are currently present in coach education programs. Six expert coaches were individually interviewed, using a semistructured format and the interviews were analyzed using QSR N6 Nudist software. The results highlighted the participants’ awareness of the uniqueness of coach education, emphasizing the importance of reflecting and engaging with a variety of learning experiences. Findings also revealed dissatisfaction with the current dominant education framework in Portugal, which remains excessively didactic and classroom-orientated. In contrast, the participants externalized a constructivist approach for coach education assuming the need for theoretical knowledge to be framed in practical contexts, where they have the opportunity to share and reflect their own and others’ experiences to develop learning. Such a position echoes Sfard’s acquisition and participation learning metaphors.
Burhan Parsak and Leyla Saraç
Although teacher-centered instructional practices have traditionally dominated the educational sphere, in recent years, a general tendency toward a constructivist approach has emerged ( Fosnot & Perry, 2005 ; Schunk, 2012 ; von Glasersfeld, 1998 ). The constructivist approach is based on learning
K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber and Amelia Mays Woods
influence the amount of class time physical activity students receive. Chen and colleagues’ large-scale curriculum intervention study, however, demonstrated that physical education classes with a constructivist approach can generate adequate student physical activity. In another study, Sun et al. ( 2012
Diane M. Culver, Penny Werthner and Pierre Trudel
-centred, constructivist approach to learning places the emphasis on learning and how each learner constructs new meaning, according to how she perceives the material of teaching. Moon ( 2001 ) also notes a number of issues with short courses. She argues that instructors of short courses often try to cover too much