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Susana Meireles, Neil D. Reeves, Richard K. Jones, Colin R. Smith, Darryl G. Thelen and Ilse Jonkers

model included an elastic foundation formulation 34 to compute cartilage contact pressures. This model was integrated into an existing lower extremity musculoskeletal model 35 with 44 musculotendon units. The lower extremity model was scaled to subject-specific segment lengths as determined in a

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Kathy J. Simpson, Eugene G. Jameson and Susan Odum

Patellofemoral dysfunctions due to abnormal force loading are significant problems for dancers. Increased jump length was predicted to require increased quadriceps force during landing, which would increase patellofemoral forces and pressures. Six female dancers performed 10 traveling jumps each at 30, 60, and 90% maximum jump displacements (JDs). A sagittal view of the landing onto a force platform (500 Hz) was filmed (100 fps). Repeated-measures ANOVA (JD) and Scheffé post hoc analyses (p < .05) showed that greater peak patellofemoral pressures occurred at longer JDs and the corresponding times to these events decreased and knee flexion increased. Previous research and these findings indicate that different regions of the patella may endure higher loads at greater JDs even though the contact areas increase with greater patellofemoral forces. However, greater knee flexion and velocity could indicate more rapid distribution of load to various patellar regions, which would reduce the time any given patellofemoral region would be subjected to high loads.

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Susanne Fuchs, Guido Schuette, Hartmut Witte, and Carsten Oliver Tibesku

A new design of total knee prosthesis without anterior patellar flange was developed to preserve the anatomical shape of the patellofemoral joint. The aim of the current study was to experimentally compare patellofemoral contact area and pressure in a nonreplaced knee, in a knee after implantation of a conventionally designed total knee arthroplasty, and in a knee after implantation of the newly designed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange. Six cadaveric legs were examined before and after implantation of either a conventional or a newly developed total knee arthroplasty, both without patellar replacement. The essential change in design is the absence of an anterior patellar flange. Contact area and pressure were measured using pressure sensitive films in 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion and the results were compared between the different prosthesis designs and with the nonreplaced knee. The prosthesis without patellar flange showed less average and maximum pressure than the conventional prosthesis. Compared with the nonreplaced knee, the conventional prosthesis led to increased average and maximum pressure and decreased contact area. In an experimental test setup, the newly developed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange showed reduced patello-femoral contact pressure in comparison with a total knee prosthesis with conventional patellofemoral design. This could possibly lead to a lower incidence of anterior knee complaints in patients.

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Stefan M. Gabriel, Anton G. Clifford, William J. Maloney, Mary K. O’Connell and Paul Tornetta III

Medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disorder often associated with pathologic joint loading. Insoles, braces, and high tibial osteotomy are OA treatments aimed at reducing medial joint loads, but their use and effectiveness are limited. The KineSpring System implant also intends to reduce knee loads in OA patients while overcoming those limitations. The current study was undertaken to test the implant’s effect on loads at the knee. Six cadaver knees with Outerbridge Grade I-II medial OA were subjected to simulated gait using a kinematic test system. Knees were tested with and without the medial knee implant while thin film sensors measured medial and lateral femorotibial contact pressures. Significant medial compartment load reductions (134 ± 53 N [P = .002]) were found throughout the stance phase of gait in the treated knee. Significant total joint load decreases (91 ± 40 N [P = .002]) were also observed without substantial changes in lateral compartment loads. These significant reductions of medial and total intra-articular loads are also within clinically effective ranges of other unloading systems. This suggests that the KineSpring System could be a viable treatment for medial knee OA.

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Bhupinder Singh, Thomas D. Brown, John J. Callaghan and H. John Yack

During seated forward reaching tasks in obese individuals, excessive abdominal tissue can come into contact with the anterior thigh. This soft tissue apposition acts as a mechanical restriction, altering functional biomechanics at the hip, and causing difficulty in certain daily activities such as bending down, or picking up objects from the floor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals. Ten healthy subjects (age 58.1 ± 4.4) with elevated BMI (39.04 ± 5.02) participated in the study. Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure-mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system. The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17 ± 5.18% of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by mean 16.5 ± 6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact. In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals.

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Yi-Chung Lin, Jack Farr, Kevin Carter and Benjamin J. Fregly

When optimization is used to evaluate a joint contact model's ability to reproduce experimental measurements, the high computational cost of repeated contact analysis can be a limiting factor. This paper presents a computationally-efficient response surface optimization methodology to address this limitation. Quadratic response surfaces were fit to contact quantities (contact force, maximum pressure, average pressure, and contact area) predicted by a discrete element contact model of the tibiofemoral joint for various combinations of material modulus and relative bone pose (i.e., position and orientation). The response surfaces were then used as surrogates for costly contact analyses in optimizations that minimized differences between measured and predicted contact quantities. The methodology was evaluated theoretically using six sets of synthetic (i.e., computer-generated) contact data, and practically using one set of experimental contact data. For the synthetic cases, the response surface optimizations recovered all contact quantities to within 3.4% error. For the experimental case, they matched all contact quantities to within 6.3% error except for maximum contact pressure, which was in error by up to 50%. Response surface optimization provides rapid evaluation of joint contact models within a limited range of relative bone poses and can help identify potential weaknesses in contact model formulation and/or experimental data quality.

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Dieter Heinrich, Martin Mössner, Peter Kaps and Werner Nachbauer

The deformation of skis and the contact pressure between skis and snow are crucial factors for carved turns in alpine skiing. The purpose of the current study was to develop and to evaluate an optimization method to determine the bending and torsional stiffness that lead to a given bending and torsional deflection of the ski. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and classical torsion theory were applied to model the deformation of the ski. Bending and torsional stiffness were approximated as linear combinations of B-splines. To compute the unknown coefficients, a parameter optimization problem was formulated and successfully solved by multiple shooting and least squares data fitting. The proposed optimization method was evaluated based on ski stiffness data and ski deformation data taken from a recently published simulation study. The ski deformation data were used as input data to the optimization method. The optimization method was capable of successfully reproducing the shape of the original bending and torsional stiffness data of the ski with a root mean square error below 1 N m2. In conclusion, the proposed computational method offers the possibility to calculate ski stiffness properties with respect to a given ski deformation.

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Shiho Goto, Naoko Aminaka and Phillip A. Gribble

rehabilitation, 3 and potential for increased risk of development of patellofemoral osteoarthritis. 4 Recent studies have demonstrated links between lateral patellofemoral contact pressure and frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics. 5 – 7 Cadaveric research studies demonstrated that greater

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

femur relative to the tibia leads to greater patellofemoral contact pressure and patella cartilage stress. 19 , 33 In a recent study, Liao et al 19 reported that only 5° of femur internal rotation was needed to increase patella cartilage stress by 26%, suggesting that the patellofemoral joint loading

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Christian A. Clermont, Sean T. Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark and Reed Ferber

abduction. 36 Increased tibial abduction can contribute to genu valgum, 37 a condition often seen in individuals with increased eversion. 38 Genu valgum increases the contact pressure between the lateral femoral condyle and the lateral facet of the patella, 36 and, during running, this increased