Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 66 items for :

  • "contact sport" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Tim J. Gabbett and Aaron J. Wheeler

Purpose:

To investigate the relationship between repeated high-intensity-effort (RHIE) ability and selected physical qualities in rugby league players.

Methods:

Sixteen rugby league players underwent measurements of upper-body strength (4-repetition-maximum [4RM] bench press, weighted chin-up, weighted dips), upper-body muscle endurance (body-mass maximum-repetition chin-up, body-mass maximum-repetition dips), lower-body strength (4RM squat), estimated maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test), and RHIE ability. The RHIE-ability test consisted of 1 × 10-m sprint, 3 × full-contact 1-on-1 tackling efforts, and a 30-m jog recovery. Players performed 4 repetitions of the test, with each repetition completed in 40 second. During the RHIE test, player speed was evaluated with a 10-m sprint effort while the movement of players was recorded using a wearable microtechnology device. 2D Player Load was used to quantify the collision component of the test.

Results:

Speed decrement was lower for the first- (−2.4% ± 1.0%) than the second-grade (−4.7% ± 2.1%) players. Players with greater initial speed had a higher average speed over the 4 sprints (r = .75), while players with greater maximum-repetition dips maintained a higher 2D Player Load (r = .76).

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate a relationship between well-developed acceleration and upper-body muscle-endurance qualities and RHIE ability in rugby league players. Training programs designed to develop acceleration and upper-body muscle endurance are likely to improve RHIE ability.

Restricted access

Maria Kavussanu, Ian D. Boardley, Sam S. Sagar, and Christopher Ring

The concept of bracketed morality has received empirical support in several sport studies (e.g., Bredemeier & Shields, 1986a, 1986b). However, these studies have focused on moral reasoning. In this research, we examined bracketed morality with respect to moral behavior in sport and university contexts, in two studies. Male and female participants (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 372) completed questionnaires assessing prosocial and antisocial behavior toward teammates and opponents in sport and toward other students at university. Study 2 participants also completed measures of moral disengagement and goal orientation in both contexts. In most cases, behavior in sport was highly correlated with behavior at university. In addition, participants reported higher prosocial behavior toward teammates and higher antisocial behavior toward opponents in sport than toward other students at university. The effects of context on antisocial behavior were partially mediated by moral disengagement and ego orientation. Our findings extend the bracketed morality concept to prosocial and antisocial behavior.

Restricted access

Corrado Lupo, Alexandru Nicolae Ungureanu, Gennaro Boccia, Andrea Licciardi, Alberto Rainoldi, and Paolo Riccardo Brustio

Purpose: The present study aimed to verify if practicing tackles during rugby union training sessions would affect the players’ internal training load and acute strength loss. Method: A total of 9 male Italian Serie A rugby union players (age: 21 [2] y) were monitored by means of an integrated approach across 17 sessions, 6 with tackles (WT) and 11 with no tackles (NT). Edwards training load was quantified using heart-rate monitoring. Global positioning system devices were used to quantify the total distance and time at >20 W. Work-to-rest ratio was quantified by means of a video analysis. Before (PRE) and after (POST) the session, the players’ well-being and rating of perceived exertion were measured, respectively. The countermovement jump and plyometric push-up jump tests were performed on a force plate to record the players’ PRE–POST concentric peak force. Linear mixed models were applied to quantify the differences between WT and NT in terms of training load and PRE–POST force deltas, even controlling for other training factors. Results: The Edwards training load (estimated mean [EM]; standard error [SE]; WT: EM = 214, SE = 11.8; NT: EM = 194, SE = 11.1; P = .01) and session rating of perceived exertion (WT: EM = 379, SE = 21.9; NT: EM = 277, SE = 16.4; P < .001) were higher in WT than in NT. Conversely, no difference between the sessions emerged in the countermovement jump and plyometric push-up concentric peak force deltas. Conclusions: Although elite rugby union players’ external and internal training load can be influenced by practicing tackles, upper- and lower-limb strength seem to not be affected.

Restricted access

Kelly M. Cheever, W. Geoffrey Wright, Jane McDevitt, Michael Sitler, and Ryan T. Tierney

Perception surrounding contact sport participation has historically been impacted by both the potential effects of repetitive musculoskeletal injuries and exposure to head impacts leading to decreased long-term quality of life. 1 Observed correlations between head impacts and resultant increases

Restricted access

Jennifer Carlson

I analyze women’s flat-track amateur roller derby by asking: how do derby skaters negotiate the requirements associated with emphasized femininity? By drawing on Hebdige’s (1979) analysis of punk, I develop the term female signifiant to argue that roller derby is an aggressive contact sport with a theatrical edge. It provides a rich, adventurous space to satirize athletic and feminine norms. Specifically, skaters’ sport participation is characterized by an interrogation of emphasized femininity without necessarily undermining the masculine/feminine gender binary.

Restricted access

David S. Levin, Edward A. Smith, Linda L. Caldwell, and Jennifer Kimbrough

This study sought to examine whether athletes are more violent, delinquent, or both than their nonathlete classmates. Survey data from 2,436 high school students indicated no significant differences for violent or delinquent behaviors between athletes and nonathletes. However, analysis of the data by the type of sport indicated noncontact sport athletes were less likely to engage in various violent and delinquent behaviors than were contact sport athletes and nonathletes. These relationships were found for both males and females. Noncontact sports may provide some protective effect with regards to violence and delinquency that contact sports do not.

Restricted access

Sarah K. Fields and R. Dawn Comstock

Rugby, a fast-paced, aggressive contact sport, has a high incidence of injury. This study examines why US women play rugby given the social stigma surrounding women’s participation in sports in general, particularly contact sports, and despite the high risk of injury. In a survey of their injury history and potential injury risk factors, 339 female rugby players from 14 teams of varied quality and levels of play from a wide geographic area in the United States were asked why they played the sport. Their responses indicate that women play rugby because they enjoy the game, they like the aggressive aspects of the sport, they appreciate the social aspects of the game, and they believe the sport provides them with positive benefits, such as increased fitness, confidence, and strength. The results of this study indicate that many women are willing to risk injury for the positive rewards that they associate with rugby.

Restricted access

Dana Munk, Ramona Cox, Martha E. Ewing, and Peggy McCann

There has been quite a surge of women’s professional football teams in the United States; however, football is rarely offered for girls at the youth sport, middle school, high school, or intercollegiate levels. While this lack of participation can be easily attributed to the contact sport exemption clause in Title IX, researchers have shown that litigation has changed the course for women by legally opening doors for opportunities in tackle football. Today, it is more likely the lack of opportunities for females in traditional male sports is because of stereotypical beliefs linked to their gender. Using qualitative methodology, researchers in this study explored stereotypical, discrepant, societal messages encountered by current professional female football players. Findings suggested societal reactions were linked to stereotypical beliefs about women in sports and included a lack of social support, discriminatory messages, and skepticism over girl’s ability to play contact sports. Implications for further study also emerged.

Restricted access

Brenda Jo Bredemeier, David L. Shields, Maureen R. Weiss, and Brace A.B. Cooper

The relationships between sport involvement variables (participation and interest) and facets of children's morality (reasoning maturity and aggression tendencies) were investigated for 106 girls and boys in grades 4 through 7. Children responded to a sport involvement questionnaire, participated in a moral interview, and completed two self-report instruments designed to assess aggression tendencies in sport-specific and daily life contexts. Analyses revealed that boys' participation and interest in high contact sports and girls' participation in medium contact sports (the highest level of contact sport experience they reported) were positively correlated with less mature moral reasoning and greater tendencies to aggress. Regression analyses demonstrated that sport interest predicted reasoning maturity and aggression tendencies better than sport participation. Results and implications are discussed from a structural developmental perspective.

Restricted access

Rayanne Streeter

Previous research has demonstrated that female athletes draw sexist and homophobic remarks, especially in contact sports, which are more highly valued and dominated by men. As such, female athletes have used a variety of responses to combat stigma they face; however, these responses have reaffirmed sexist and homophobic assumptions rather than contest them. In the last decade roller derby has emerged as a contact sport which is female-dominated and whose members seek to complicate gendered assumptions about sport. Analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews with 17 female flat-track roller derby players shows that although skaters face similar challenges of sexism and homophobia skaters resist these challenges in innovative ways including demonstrating the legitimacy of the sport, educating outsiders on the diversity of players, shrugging off or defending themselves, and adopting new uniforms. This study concludes by arguing that roller derby, as a unique sport within the particular historical moment of increased LGTBQ acceptance, has implications for altering women’s relationship to sport by resisting homophobic and sexist assumptions. The altered relationship includes skaters being more open to different expressions of sexuality and gender in sport, taking control over their athletic status, and fostering a more accepting place for female athletes. In addition, this resistance has the potential to impact female athletes in contact sports other than roller derby by identifying and adopting these resistive strategies creating larger change.