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Colin A. Armstrong, James F. Sallis, Melbourne F. Hovell and C. Richard Hofstetter

Components of the transtheoretical model of change were examined in a prospective study of the adoption of vigorous exercise in adults. Respondents to a random mail survey were resurveyed 2 years later. Those who reported no vigorous exercise at baseline were classified as either contemplators (n = 213) or precontemplators (n = 188). Contemplators had higher baseline self-efficacy scores than precontemplators (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, baseline stage of change was a significant predictor (p < .0005) of later adoption of vigorous exercise, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, and self-efficacy. During the first 6 months postbaseline, contemplators were nearly twice as likely as precontemplators to progress to the stage of action (46% vs. 24%), and four times more likely to progress to the stage of maintenance (25% vs. 6%). Use of the transtheoretical model in the study of exercise was supported in this prospective examination of exercise in a community sample.

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Stacey R. Altman, Mark Moore, Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin and Stacy Warner

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Larena Hill and Lisa M. Kikulis

This research examines the dynamics of strategic decision making within the western Canadian university athletic system. Using a framework developed from the Bradford studies (Hickson, Butler, Cray, Mallory, & Wilson, 1986) and Butler (1991), we focused on three key elements of decision making; complexity, politically, and the rules of the game. Using these concepts, this paper presents a case study analysis of the decision process that centered around the potential restructuring of the Canada West University Athletic Association and the Great Plains Athletic Conference. Qualitative research methods were used to collect and analyze data from documents and interview transcripts. The results show that the diversity of interests, level of influence, and both the constraining and enabling rules of the game contribute to the way the decision topic of restructuring was interpreted, what behaviors were enacted, and how the decision making process emerged to deal with this topic.

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Daniel Wigfield, Ryan Snelgrove, Luke R. Potwarka, Katie Misener and Laura Wood

contemplated where the company was heading over the next five years. With PGC Basketball staff regularly spread across North America operating camps on a weekly basis it seemed that there was little time to appropriately reflect and consider the future of the organization. To date, PGC Basketball has been

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Jeffrey Graham, Allison Smith and Sylvia Trendafilova

does matter in the long run if we are balanced or not, especially when you hear about things like burnout.” The discussion died down a little at this point for a moment, as everyone contemplated what had been said already. Craig considered jumping into the conversation, but then Phil, the lone

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Edgar J. Gallardo and Andrew R. Coggan

various commercial BRJ supplements. The results may be useful to athletes, coaches, and scientists contemplating which (if any) BRJ product to use and may also offer some insight into factors contributing to variability in the literature with respect to the effects of BRJ on exercise performance. Methods

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Thomas K. Ewing

Most coaches are retired former players, despite a growing body of evidence to suggest that being a great player is, in and of itself, no guarantee of coaching success. Why is this? What is the best pathway to the head coach role? Do tertiary qualifications add value? In contemplating these questions, five empirical generalisations are advanced, followed by three recommendations to improve the calibre of coaches in general, and cricket coaches in particular. At no point is it suggested that star players cannot make great coaches, nor that coaches with degrees are in any way superior to those without. The goal of the article is simply to challenge the status quo, to stimulate debate, and to influence practice and scholarship.

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Erin P. Jackson, Stefania Ciulla, Frederik Ehlen, Ayobami Ogunlana and Jess C. Dixon

In August of 2015, Felix Farmer received notice that he would be inheriting a large sum of money from his great-uncle’s will. Farmer is contemplating investing $50,000 CAD ($38,251 USD) of his inheritance in the parent company of his favorite hockey brand, Bauer. Performance Sports Group (PSG) is a leading manufacturer in the global sporting goods industry that is publicly traded on both the Toronto and New York Stock exchanges, and the parent of such highly successful brands as Bauer and Easton. This case study challenges students to calculate financial ratios, apply various other financial analyses to understand the financial performance of PSG, and complete a Porter’s (2008) Five Forces industry analysis as a means of deciding whether Farmer should invest a portion of his inheritance with PSG.

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Stephen Harvey and Brendon Hyndman

Purpose: To date, there have been limited investigations relating to physical education (PE) professionals’ engagement in the use of Twitter. Consequently, the aim of the study was to investigate the reasons PE professionals use Twitter, with questions underpinned by Casey, Goodyear, and Armour’s three-level conceptual classification framework of Pedagogies of Technology. Method: The application of Leximancer text mining software was uniquely employed to text mine the survey data to determine the key themes and concepts. Results: It was discovered that PE professionals perceived the Twitter platform to be highly valuable to connect with others in the profession, learn from others, and share ideas (both within schools and more broadly) via a convenient, usable form of technology. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding the reasons PE professionals use Twitter can provide a broader understanding for those contemplating the utilization of this platform and inform future Twitter/social media research directions for the field of PE.

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Nadav Goldschmied, Max Nankin and Guy Cafri

Icing is a common strategy used in American football during the last moments of a close game when a coach may ask for a time-out to allow an opposing kicker, who is about to attempt a decisive field-kick, an extended period of time possibly to contemplate the negative outcomes if he fails to score (i.e., rumination). Using archival data of pressure kicks from six consecutive National Football League seasons (2002—2008), a mixed-effects hierarchical linear model was applied. It was found that icing was successful in reducing scoring while other environmental factors such as experience, game location or game score were not associated with conversion success. In a secondary analysis it was demonstrated that if a time-out before the pressure kick is requested by the coaches of the kicking team, kickers are not subjected to the debilitating effects of icing. Theoretical and applied implications are also discussed.