seminal papers on the knowledge base for teaching, Shulman ( 1986 , 1987 ) emphasized the central place of content knowledge in conceptions of teaching quality. The take home messages from Shulman’s ( 1986 , 1987 ) comments were that distinguishing features of quality in teaching lies in: (a) a teacher
Phillip Ward, Emi Tsuda, Fatih Dervent and Erhan Devrilmez
Gunn Nyberg and Hakan Larsson
The purpose of this article is to explore physical education (PE) teachers’ content knowledge of the emerging concept movement capability. Interviews with eight PE teachers were conducted, partly using a stimulated recall technique which involved watching and commenting on video recorded PE lessons. A phenomenographic analysis was used to outline the different ways of conceptualizing movement capability. Five different ways of conceptualizing movement capability were identified, which indicates the complexity of the concept movement capability. However, the result also provides a structure for developing a systematic and structured way of conceiving movement capability. In this study we have highlighted a multifaceted, nuanced and differentiated picture of movement capability to see moving as educationally valuable. We conclude by emphasizing that movement capability should not be restricted to only its constitutive parts as teachers’ plan PE teaching, but should be approached as a whole.
Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith
in the use of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK; Shulman, 1987 ). PCK represents the epitome of the application of professional knowledge and the use of professional judgment. In the next section, we describe pertinent theoretical and empirical literature concerned with PCK that underpinned the
Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang
Content knowledge is essential knowledge for teaching. The proof is grounded in a simple maxim that you cannot teach what you do not know. Historically, “knowing” has been taught by developing the playing ability (performance) of the teachers in university courses designed to teach preservice
Insook Kim and Bomna Ko
in the suburban area, but may not in the inner city) and with particular content (e.g., experts in dance, but may not in gymnastics). Some have argued that teaching experience is not by itself associated with gains of content knowledge (CK) or expertise ( O’Sullivan & Doutis, 1994 ; Schempp, Manross
Phillip Ward, Yaohui He, Xiaozan Wang and Weidong Li
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) was first proposed by Shulman ( 1986 , 1987 ) three decades ago. Shulman’s intent was to draw attention to the role of content in understanding teaching and learning. A defining feature of PCK is the transformation of content knowledge into meaningful ways for
Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su
Content knowledge is an umbrella term referring to the knowledge, skills, and values that teachers teach and that preservice teachers are expected to learn in a subject area. Ball, Thames, and Phelps ( 2008 ) have drawn distinctions between two types of content knowledge for teaching: Knowledge of
Phillip Ward and Shiri Ayvazo
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a frequently used concept in the educational community. Its usage is so widespread it appears to function as a “lingua franca” across different subject areas and among researchers within a subject area. Critiques of PCK have suggested it may function at best as a heuristic and at worst as a masquerade; because there has been little consensus on its conceptualization and in many studies there is no operational definition of PCK provided. Recent studies, however, have moved both the conceptualization and measurement of PCK forward in ways that allow the concept to be operationalized. In this article we examine how PCK has evolved since Shulman’s (1986) initial conceptualization, and discuss how the concept has been used in physical education. We describe and examine five recurring research findings for PCK in physical education. These are that PCK can be described on continuums of maturity and effectiveness; is learned, is specific to content and context; and is strongly related to both content knowledge and knowledge of students.
Insook Kim, Yun Soo Lee, Phillip Ward and Weidong Li
Despite increasing policy emphasis on improving teacher quality, little is known about how teachers acquire their movement content knowledge in physical education teacher education (PETE). To address this question we examined: (a) movement content courses designed to teach K-12 physical education content in the PETE curriculum, (b) the purpose of the movement content courses, (c) the focus of the movement content course syllabi, and (d) pedagogical tasks used to teach movement content knowledge. Data were collected from websites, program coordinators, and course syllabi in 26 PETE programs and analyzed using descriptive statistics or one-way chi-square test. A primary conclusion from this study is that not a lot of common content knowledge is taught in the PETE curriculums we examined. A second conclusion is that specialized content knowledge does not represent a significant focus in the movement content classes. These findings both support and challenge current policy initiatives that address teacher quality in PETE.
Fatih Dervent, Phillip Ward, Erhan Devrilmez and Emi Tsuda
al., 2000 ; Rink, 1994 ). Theoretically, instructional tasks are a form of content knowledge described by Ward ( 2009 ) as specialized content knowledge (SCK). SCK includes knowledge of the errors that students might make in performing those tasks and also the ways in which the tasks might be represented