This study used participants from the martial arts (karate) to examine the influence of context in the acquisition of novel motor sequences and the applicability of Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Romer's (1993) theory of deliberate practice in this athletic domain. The presence of context did not benefit recall performance for the experts. The performance of the novice group was hindered by the presence of context. Evaluation of the role of deliberate practice in expert performance was assessed through retrospective questionnaires. The findings related to the relationship between relevance and effort, and relevance and enjoyment diverged from Ericsson et al.'s (1993) definition of deliberate practice, suggesting that adaptations should be made if it is to be considered general theory of expertise.
Thana Hodge and Janice M. Deakin
Liezel Hurter, Anna M. Cooper-Ryan, Zoe R. Knowles, Lorna A. Porcellato, Stuart J. Fairclough, and Lynne M. Boddy
associations with health indicators ( Carson, Hunter, et al., 2016 ). Not only do researchers need an understanding of the amount of time spent sedentary, but also the types of behaviors and the context in which these behaviors occur, in order to design future interventions effectively. Accurate assessment of
Benito León, Javier Fernandez-Rio, Sergio Rivera-Pérez, and Damián Iglesias
the use of cooperative learning techniques on academic, social, and affective variables ( Johnson & Johnson, 2018 ). Regarding academic variables, in their meta-analysis, Johnson et al. ( 1981 ) found that cooperative contexts were superior to competitive and individualistic in terms of performance
Lina Engelen, Anita C Bundy, Jamie Lau, Geraldine Naughton, Shirley Wyver, Adrian Bauman, and Louise Baur
To promote healthy lifestyles, we need to understand more about the patterns of children’s activities after school.
Twenty 5- to 7-year-old children and their parents participated in this study. Parents used ‘real-time’ diaries to report children’s activities and contextual information at 3 randomly selected times per day, over 4 week days. Reporting was repeated after 13 weeks. Simultaneously children wore Actical accelerometers.
Approximately 300 simultaneous accelerometer measurements and diary entries were compared. Mean physical activity levels were highest when children engaged in activities generally considered as “active” and lowest for doing “nothing.” However, the range within activities was very large; some children who reported TV/screen time accumulated high accelerometry counts and conversely, some children were practically sedentary during organized sports. Children spent most (78%) of their after school time indoors, but the children were significantly more active outdoors than indoors [t(74.8) = 5.0, P < .001].
Accelerometer data in conjunction with real-time diaries provide a more complete understanding of the value of outdoor play in increasing movement opportunities for children’s after school activities.
Judy L. Van Raalte, Lorraine Wilson, Allen Cornelius, and Britton W. Brewer
context (e.g., laboratory vs. naturalistic setting, high-risk vs. low-risk environment) in which self-talk occurs is a factor worthy of consideration, as context is related to the processing of information, self-talk, and behavior ( Van Raalte, Vincent, & Brewer, 2016 ). Limited self-talk research has
Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian, and Nadia C. Valentini
), and the role of environmental context ( Caçola, Gabbard, Montebelo, & Santos, 2015 ). To illustrate some of these examples, we describe and discuss frequently used assessments in the field ( Griffiths, Toovey, Morgan & Spittle, 2018 ). We limited our discussion to research on children, for several
Thomas L. McKenzie
.g., recess, class activity breaks; CDC, 2013 ). CSPAPs involve collaborations within schools to provide and promote physical activity in diverse contexts, but the adoption and effectiveness of CSPAPs are not yet well known. The School Health Profiles 2016 , for example, reported that only about 3% of U
Fabrice Burlot, Mathilde Desenfant, and Helene Joncheray
In the context of increased international competition ( De Bosscher, Shibli, Westerbeek, & Van Bottenburg, 2015 ), the objective of this article is to examine the conditions for achieving the dual career ( European Commission, 2007 ) of French elite athletes. In France, since the Mazeaud Law of
important ancient and modern somatic training practices mentioned above (e.g., yoga, taiji quan, the Alexander technique, the Feldenkrais method), somaesthetics emerged in a distinctly academic context. It arose out of a twofold need to address a problem in academic research when the postmodern and
Oliver R. Runswick, Matthew Jewiss, Ben T. Sharpe, and Jamie S. North
al., 2015 ). Researchers have also developed interventions to increase QE duration and reported subsequent performance improvements ( Causer, Holmes, & Williams, 2011 ; Panchuk et al., 2014 ; Vine et al., 2011 ; Vine & Wilson, 2011 ). However, little attention has been paid to how the context in which