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Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha Louise Moss and Craig Twist

characteristics are potentially influenced by numerous factors including playing position, 12 playing age, 6 , 13 performance standard (ie, amateur cf. professional), 6 , 14 , 15 league position, 16 and season phase. 16 – 18 Understanding the role of contextual factors on player characteristics could be

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Carl T. Hayashi

To augment the minimal sport psychology research examining alternative cultures, the purpose of this study was to examine the nature of individual differences and social contextual factors related to achievement motivation among Anglo-American and Hawaiian male physical activity participants. Semistructured interviews were conducted with Hawaiians (n = 5) and Anglo-Americans who resided in the mainland United States (n = 5) and in Hawaii (n = 5). Results of content analyses revealed that all respondents defined positive and negative experiences in physical activity through task and ego goal orientations and an interdependent perspective of the self. Participants perceived the weight room environment through competitive, individualistic, and cooperative goal/reward structures. Cultural differences were also detected as Hawaiians defined positive activity experiences based on the demonstration of pride and perceived the weight room as a setting in which to express pride and an interdependent perspective. These findings suggest the need for more cross-cultural research in sport psychology to validate theoretical constructs.

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Tyler L. Goodale, Tim J. Gabbett, Ming-Chang Tsai, Trent Stellingwerff and Jeremy Sheppard

Purpose:

To evaluate the effects of contextual game factors on activity and physiological profiles of international-level women’s rugby sevens players.

Methods:

Twenty international-level female rugby sevens players from the same national team participated in this study. Global positioning system and heart-rate data were collected at 5 World Rugby Women’s Sevens Series events (2013–14 season).

Results:

Total, moderate-speed (0.2–3.5 m/s), and high-speed running (3.5–5.0 m/s) distances were significantly greater in the first half (20.1% ± 4.1%, 17.6% ± 6.9%, 24.5% ± 7.8%), during losses (11.4% ± 6.1%, 6.1% ± 6.4%, 26.9% ± 9.8%), during losses of large magnitudes (≥2 tries) (12.9% ± 8.8%, 6.8% ± 10.0%, 31.2% ± 14.9%), and against top-4 opponents (12.6% ± 8.7%, 11.3% ± 8.5%, 15.5% ± 13.9%). In addition, total distance increased (5.0% ± 5.5%) significantly from day 1 to day 2 of tournaments, and very-high-speed (5.0–6.5 m/s) running distance increased significantly (26.0% ± 14.2%) during losses. Time spent between 90% and 100% of maximum heart rate (16.4% ± 14.5%) and player load (19.0% ± 5.1%) were significantly greater in the second half. No significant differences in physiological or activity profiles were observed between forwards and backs.

Conclusions:

Game half, game outcome, tournament day, opponent rank, and margin of outcome all affected activity profiles, whereas game half affected physiological profiles. No differences in activity or physiological profiles were found between playing positions. Practitioners are advised to develop high-speed running ability in women’s rugby sevens players to prepare them to tolerate the varying factors that affect activity profiles.

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

result of contextual factors, as well as the extent to which the three basic psychological needs are satisfied or not in that activity ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 ). Contextual factors include the structure of the environment (i.e., conflict between domains, organizational structure, etc.) and the people within

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Fabrice Dosseville, Sylvain Laborde and Markus Raab

We studied the influence of contextual factors and the referees’ own motor experience on the quality of their perceptual judgments. The theoretical framework combined the social cognition approach with the embodied cognition, and enabled us to determine whether judgments were biased or not by using a combination of contextual and internal factors. Sixty fully-qualified and aspiring judo referees were tested in a video-based decision-making task in which they had to decide when to stop the ground contact phase. The decision task differed depending on whether one contestant dominated the other or whether they were equal in the prior phase. Results indicated that the referees’ motor experience influenced perceptual judgments and interacted with contextual factors, enhancing the need for a combination of social and embodied cognition to explain biases in referees’ judgments. Practical considerations were discussed in this paper, such as, whether referees need recent motor experience and how this could influence rules of governing bodies for officiating.

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Jack A. G. Marlow and Mark Uphill

This study explored the characteristics, contextual factors and consequences of counterfactual thoughts in seven elite athletes using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Counterfactuals were experienced regularly with self-directed and upward counterfactuals (cognitions about how things could be better) being most frequent. These upward counterfactuals typically occurred following performance that was below participants’ goals and expectations. These thoughts were perceived by participants to have a negative affect initially, and that they then led to facilitative behavioral consequences around learning and development. Some elements of counterfactual thinking could be used as a useful reflective tool to encourage elite athletes to problem solve and motivate cognitive, emotional and behavioral change to enhance future performance.

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Maureen R. Weiss and Linda M. Petlichkoff

Children’s reasons for participating in sport as well as their reasons for discontinuing involvement have been extensively studied over the last decade. However, a complete understanding of the underlying processes influencing these phenomena has been clouded by failing to consider a number of individual difference and contextual factors related to sport participation. These missing links include participant status group differences, program type, level of intensity, type of sport, particular reasons for attrition, multiple assessments across a season, developmental differences, and the social structure surrounding the sport experience. Future research possibilities and practical implications for pediatric educators are provided.

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Alysia Cohen, Samantha McDonald, Kerry McIver, Russell Pate and Stewart Trost

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and interrater reliability of the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports (OSRAC:YS). Children (N = 29) participating in a parks and recreation soccer program were observed during regularly scheduled practices. Physical activity (PA) intensity and contextual factors were recorded by momentary time-sampling procedures (10-second observe, 20-second record). Two observers simultaneously observed and recorded children’s PA intensity, practice context, social context, coach behavior, and coach proximity. Interrater reliability was based on agreement (Kappa) between the observer’s coding for each category, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for percent of time spent in MVPA. Validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between OSRAC:YS estimated and objectively measured MVPA. Kappa statistics for each category demonstrated substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.67−0.93). The ICC for percent time in MVPA was 0.76 (95% C.I. = 0.49−0.90). A significant correlation (r = .73) was observed for MVPA recorded by observation and MVPA measured via accelerometry. The results indicate the OSRAC:YS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring children’s PA and contextual factors during a youth soccer practice.

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Monika Uys, Catherine Elizabeth Draper, Sharief Hendricks, Anniza de Villiers, Jean Fourie, Nelia Steyn and Estelle Victoria Lambert

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence physical activity (PA) levels during break-times in South African primary school children.

Methods:

The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activities in Youth (SOPLAY) was used to observe PA levels during break-times at low-income schools (4 intervention, 4 control). The intervention was based on action-planning including: school environment, curriculum, and family involvement. Categories of observed activity included Sedentary, Eating, Walking, or Vigorous PA. Contextual factors assessed included teacher supervision, equipment, and crowding. Chi-square tests were used to determine associations between PA levels and contextual factors.

Results:

In the 970 observations made, 31% of learners were sedentary, 14% were eating, 29% were walking, and 26% were engaged in vigorous PA. There were no differences in break-time PA between intervention and control groups (NS). With supervision, children were more likely to eat and less likely to do vigorous PA (P = .035). Playground crowding was associated with lower levels of vigorous activity and more sedentary behavior (P = .000).

Conclusions:

PA during break-time was adversely affected by over-crowding and lower with supervision. The results suggest that interventions may be targeted at the school policy environment to reduce these barriers to PA.

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Jean Côté, John Saimela, Pierre Trudel, Abderrahim Baria and Storm Russell

An expert system approach (Buchanan et al., 1983) was used to identify and conceptualize the knowledge of 17 Canadian expert high-performance gymnastic coaches. The knowledge elicitation process consisted of open-ended questions and various questioning methods to unveil, explore, and prove important information (Patton, 1987; Spradley, 1979) about coaching. All coaches’ interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the unstructured qualitative data were inductively analyzed following the procedures and techniques of grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The inductive analysis process allowed the meaning units of the interview transcripts to be regrouped into properties, categories, and components. The components emerging from the analysis consisted of (a) competition, (b) training, (c) organization, (d) coach’s personal characteristics, (e) gymnast’s personal characteristics and level of development, and (f) contextual factors. These components were further developed into a model representing coaches’ knowledge.