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David E. Conroy

The multidimensional, hierarchical model of fear of failure (FF) has gained popularity in sport; however, the unique meaning of lower-order fears of failing in previous research may have been obscured by the hierarchical structure of the model. The present research aimed to establish the unique psychological meaning of lower-order fears of failing. Samples of recreational athletes (N = 440) and female varsity intercollegiate track and field athletes (N = 71) completed measures of multidimensional fears of failing, self-talk while failing, 2 × 2 achievement goals, and contextual motivation. Partial correlation analyses revealed unique patterns of relationships for each lower-order FF score with the external measures of self-talk, achievement goals, and contextual motivation. Fears of experiencing shame and embarrassment appeared to be at the heart of dysfunctional aspects of FF, whereas fears of having an uncertain future evidenced some uniquely adaptive components.

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

understood at the contextual motivational level ( Vallerand, 2001 ) and are the result of an individuals’ motivation quality (autonomous or controlled) within that context (e.g., Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, & Legault, 2002 ; Taylor, Ntoumanis, & Standage, 2008 ). For coaches, it is believed that when the

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Patrick Gaudreau and Sheilah Antl

This study examined the associations of dispositional perfectionism, contextual motivation, sport-related coping, goal attainment, and changes in life satisfaction during a sport competition. A sample of 186 athletes completed measures of dispositional perfectionism, contextual motivation, and life satisfaction at Time 1 (before a competition) as well as measures of coping, goal attainment, and life satisfaction at Time 2 (after a competition). Results of structural equation modeling supported a model in which self-determined and non-self-determined motivation partially mediated the relationships between different dimensions of perfectionism and coping. It was also shown that disengagement-oriented coping mediated the negative relationship between evaluative concerns perfectionism and change in life satisfaction. In a similar way, goal attainment mediated the relationships of both task- and disengagement-oriented coping with change in life satisfaction. For the most part, these results are consistent with the motivational properties of evaluative concerns and personal standards perfectionism and with literature regarding coping and self-determination theory.

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Timo Tapio Jaakkola, Arja Sääkslahti, Sami Yli-Piipari, Mika Manninen, Anthony Watt, and Jarmo Liukkonen

The purpose of the study was to analyze students’ motivation in relation to their participation in fitness testing classes. Participants were 134 Finnish Grade 5 and 8 students. Students completed the contextual motivation and perceived physical competence scales before the fitness testing class and the situational motivation questionnaire immediately after the class. During the fitness test class, abdominal muscle endurance was measured by curl-up test, lower body explosive strength and locomotor skills by the five leaps test, and speed and agility by the Figure 8 running test. For the fitness testing class, students reported higher scores for intrinsic motivation, identified motivation, and amotivation than in their general physical education program. The result of the path analysis showed physical fitness was positively related to perceived physical competence. In addition, perceived competence was found to be a positive predictor of situational intrinsic motivation, but not of other forms of situational motivation. Significant path coefficients in the model ranged from −.15 to .26.

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Keven A. Prusak, Darren C. Treasure, Paul W. Darst, and Robert P. Pangrazi

This study examined the motivational responses of adolescent girls in the physical education setting to having choices of walking activities. Seventh and 8th grade girls (N = 1,110) in 42 intact physical education classes participated in this study. Classes were randomly assigned to choice (n = 21) and no-choice (n = 21) groups. Participants’ situational and contextual motivation was assessed using the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Sport Motivation Scale for PE (SMSPE). The SIMS was administered every 3 days during the intervention. The SMSPE was administered as the pre- and posttest. Significant differences indicated that the choice group (a) was more intrinsically motivated, (b) had higher identified regulation, (c) experienced less external control, and (d) was less amotivated. Moderate to large effect sizes were noted. A significant difference in amotivation at the contextual level was noted. Results suggest that adolescent female PE students may be more motivated if given choices. The notion of emerging adult attitudes is presented and explored.

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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

. A model of contextual motivation in physical education: using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions . J Educ Psychol . 2003 ; 95 ( 1 ): 97 – 110 . doi:10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.97 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.97 7. Anderson ES , Wojcik

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

.1037/0022-0663.88.4.731 Standage , M. , Duda , J.L. , & Ntoumanis , N. ( 2003 ). A model of contextual motivation in physical education: Using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions . Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 97 – 110 . 10

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Kent Upham, Brandon J. Auer, Christopher N. Sciamanna, Andrew J. Mowen, Joshua M. Smyth, David E. Conroy, Matthew Silvis, Jennifer L. Kraschnewski, Liza S. Rovniak, Erik Lehman, Kalen Kearcher, Maggie Vizzini, and Louis Cesarone

.2014-0102 10.1123/jsep.2014-0102 25356614 24. Standage M , Duda JL , Ntoumanis N . A model of contextual motivation in physical education: using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions . J Educ Psychol . 2003 ; 95 ( 1 ): 97

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel

individual and contextual motivational conditions. Contextual Conditions: Perceived Motivational Climates in PE Three motivation climates (i.e., mastery, performance, and autonomy-supportive climates) serve as the contextual conditions in the analysis in addition to physical inclusion. The distinction

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Stéphanie Girard, Jérôme St-Amand, and Roch Chouinard

between mgoals and PC to predict leisure-time physical activity. mgoals = mastery goals; PC = perceived competence. Discussion Grounded in achievement goal theory, the purposes of the current study were to verify which contextual (motivational climate) and individual (perceived competence and achievement