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Patrick Ippersiel, Richard Preuss, and Shawn M. Robbins

Continuous relative phase (CRP) is an analysis technique used to study joint coordination and variability in human movement. 1 CRP is based in dynamic systems theory and quantifies the phase relationship between 2 body segments. 2 A recent review suggests that the most robust approach of

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Ross H. Miller, Stacey A. Meardon, Timothy R. Derrick, and Jason C. Gillette

Previous research has proposed that a lack of variability in lower extremity coupling during running is associated with pathology. The purpose of the study was to evaluate lower extremity coupling variability in runners with and without a history of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) during an exhaustive run. Sixteen runners ran to voluntary exhaustion on a motorized treadmill while a motion capture system recorded reflective marker locations. Eight runners had a history of ITBS. At the start and end of the run, continuous relative phase (CRP) angles and CRP variability between strides were calculated for key lower extremity kinematic couplings. The ITBS runners demonstrated less CRP variability than controls in several couplings between segments that have been associated with knee pain and ITBS symptoms, including tibia rotation–rearfoot motion and rearfoot motion–thigh ad/abduction, but more variability in knee flexion/extension–foot ad/abduction. The ITBS runners also demonstrated low variability at heel strike in coupling between rearfoot motion–tibia rotation. The results suggest that runners prone to ITBS use abnormal segmental coordination patterns, particular in couplings involving thigh ad/abduction and tibia internal/external rotation. Implications for variability in injury etiology are suggested.

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Jeffrey M. Haddad, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Jonathan S. Wheat, Joseph Hamill, and Winona Snapp-Childs

A variety of kinematic and kinetic measures are typically used to examine gait symmetry. Here we make the argument that gait asymmetries may be most clearly revealed through higher-order coordinative measures such as continuous relative phase (CRP). Participants walked on a treadmill with a load attached to their nondominant limb. Gait symmetry was then assessed using spatial (angular), temporal (velocity), and higherorder (CRP) symmetry measures. It was found that higher-order measures were most sensitive at assessing asymmetries due to load manipulation at both the distal and proximal segments. Symmetry measures derived from velocity variables were more sensitive than angular measures at detecting asymmetries, but were less sensitive compared with CRP. Asymmetries were also more readily detected using segmental angles compared with joint angles. These results suggest that gait asymmetries that emerge from changing constraints manifest along both spatial and temporal dimensions.

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Joseph Hamill, Jeffrey M. Haddad, and William J. McDermott

Variability is a critical aspect of a dynamical systems analysis. Because there are a number of numerical techniques that can be used in such an analysis, the calculation of variability has several issues that must be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to present a variety of quantitative methods for investigating variability from a dynamical systems perspective. The paper is divided into two major sections covering discrete and continuous methods. Each of these sections is subdivided into two sections. Within discrete methods, we discuss, first, the calculation of the discrete relative phase from a time-series history of two parameters and, second, the use of return maps. Using continuous methods, we present procedures for using angle-angle plots in the evaluation of relative phase. We then discuss the use of phase plots in the calculation of the continuous relative phase. Each of these methods presents unique problems for the researcher and the method to be used is determined by the nature of the question asked.

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Lindsay K. Drewes, Patrick O. McKeon, Gabriele Paolini, Patrick Riley, D. Casey Kerrigan, Christopher D. Ingersoll, and Jay Hertel

Context:

Kinematic patterns during gait have not been extensively studied in relation to chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Objective:

To determine whether individuals with CAI demonstrate altered ankle kinematics and shank-rear-foot coupling compared with controls during walking and jogging.

Design:

Case control.

Setting:

Motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

7 participants (3 men, 4 women) suffering from CAI (age 24.6 ± 4.2 y, height 172.6 ± 9.4 cm, mass 70.9 ± 8.1 kg) and 7 (3 men, 4 women) healthy, matched controls (age 24.7 ± 4.5 y, height 168.2 ± 5.9 cm, mass 66.5 ± 9.8 kg).

Interventions:

Subjects walked and jogged on a treadmill while 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremities were captured.

Main Outcome Measures:

The positions of rear-foot inversion–eversion and shank rotation were calculated throughout the gait cycle. Continuous relative-phase angles between these segments were calculated to assess coupling.

Results:

The CAI group demonstrated more rear-foot inversion and shank external rotation during walking and jogging. There were differences between groups in shank-rear-foot coupling during terminal swing at both speeds.

Conclusions:

Altered ankle kinematics and joint coupling during the terminal-swing phase of gait may predispose a population with CAI to ankle-inversion injuries. Less coordinated movement during gait may be an indication of altered neuromuscular recruitment of the musculature surrounding the ankle as the foot is being positioned for initial contact.

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes, and Ludovic Seifert

by the horizontal displacement of the hip through one upper-limb cycle. Upper-Limb Coordination Analysis Coordination between right and left upper limbs was assessed through the continuous relative phase (CRP) that has been considered appropriate for cyclic and sinusoidal signals ( Lamb & Stöckl

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Marianne J.R. Gittoes and Cassie Wilson

This study aimed to develop insight into the lower extremity joint coupling motions used in the maximal velocity phase of sprint running. Two-dimensional coordinate data were used to derive sagittal plane joint angle profiles of sprint running trials. Intralimb joint coupling motions were examined using a continuous relative phase (CRP) analysis. The knee-ankle (KA) coupling was more out of phase compared with the hip-knee (HK) coupling across the step phase (mean CRP: KA 89.9° HK 34.2°) and produced a lower within-athlete CRP variability (VCRP) in stance. Touchdown (TD) produced more out-of-phase motions and a larger VCRP than toe-off. A destabilization of the lower extremity coordination pattern was considered necessary at TD to allow for the swing-to-stance transition. The key role that the KA joint motion has in the movement patterns used by healthy athletes in the maximal velocity phase of sprint running was highlighted.

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Jurjen Bosga, Ruud G. J. Meulenbroek, and Raymond H. Cuijpers

In this study, we investigate how two persons (dyads) coordinate their movements when performing cyclical motion patterns on a rocking board. In keeping with the Leading Joint Hypothesis (Dounskaia, 2005), the movement dynamics of the collaborating participants were expected to display features of a prime mover with low movement variability. Fourteen subject pairs performed the task in nine amplitude-frequency combinations that were presented in the form of a to-be-tracked stimulus on a computer display. Participants were asked to track the stimulus by jointly rocking the Board sideways while receiving continuous visual feedback of its rotations. Displacements of 28 IREDS that were attached to the rocking board, both ankles, knees, hips, shoulders and heads of both actors, were sampled at 75 Hz by means of a 3D-motion tracking system. From these data, we derived body-segment angular excursions as well as the continuous relative phase and time-lagged cross-correlations between relevant joint excursions. The results show that, at the intrapersonal level, knee rotations initially led all other joints in time while the antiphase coordination between the knees displayed relative low variability. At the interpersonal level, dyads adopted a leader-follower strategy with respect to the coordination demands of the task. We take that knee rotations create a dynamic foundation at both intra- and interpersonal levels involving subordination of individual action to joint performance thereby allowing for low-dimensional control of joint action in a high-dimensional, repetitive motor task.

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Joseph F. Seay, Jeffery M. Haddad, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, and Joseph Hamill

Increases in movement variability have previously been observed to be a hallmark property of cooraination changes between coupled oscillators that occur as movement frequency is scaled. Prior research on the walk-run transition in human locomotion has also demonstrated increases in variability around the transition region, supporting predictions of nonequilibrium phase transitions (Diedrich & Warren, 1995). The current study examined the coordinative patterns of both intra- and inter-limb couplings around the walk-run transition using two different temporal manipulations of locomotor velocity as a control parameter in healthy young participants (N = 11). Coordination variability did not increase before the transition. The nature of the change in continuous relative phase variability between gait modes was coupling-specific, and varying the time spent at each velocity did not have an overall effect on gait transition dynamics. Lower extremity inter-limb coordination dynamics were more sensitive to changes in treadmill velocity than intra-limb coordination. The results demonstrate the complexity of segmental coordination change in human locomotion, and question the applicability of dynamical bimanual coordination models to human gait transitions.

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. Miller * Maria K. Lebiedowska * Steven J. Stanhope * 8 2008 24 3 252 261 10.1123/jab.24.3.252 Continuous Relative Phase Variability during an Exhaustive Run in Runners with a History of Iliotibial Band Syndrome Ross H. Miller * Stacey A. Meardon * Timothy R. Derrick * Jason C. Gillette * 8